In recent years, the topic of chip and lithography is very popular. Today, we will discuss the topic of lithography: how much supply chain is needed to support a lithography machine that can produce advanced process chips? How many companies from different countries are involved in manufacturing a lithography machine? See how difficult it is to make a lithography machine. ASML (ASML), the world’s top photolithography machine manufacturer, may need more than 100000 parts to produce a 5nm lithography machine, with a weight of 180 tons. It takes a year to assemble the lithography machine, which is a product of human wisdom. Moreover, the production of a lithography machine requires the cooperation of different suppliers in the supply chain. More than 90% of the parts of ASML’s lithography machine are purchased from the world, integrating the best parts in the world. So, which upstream suppliers does ASML have? < / P > < p > from a 2017 industry report, ASML suppliers are mainly concentrated in the United States, Japan, Taiwan, and Germany. Zeiss of Germany is the supplier of optical system of lithography machine, the United States is mainly the supplier of light source, automation and precision device, Japan mainly deals with precision device and optical device, Taiwan of China mainly supplies mask, mask storage box and cable. < / P > < p > many high-tech companies have been involved from upstream suppliers. If you need to copy an ASML lithography machine, you must purchase from these suppliers or develop these parts by yourself. These two ways are not easy. It is quite simple to purchase with suppliers. Perhaps some of the original parts can be obtained through various commercial negotiations, and some specially supplied or patented parts will not be easy to purchase. If we develop and copy by ourselves, we can develop more than 100000 parts of a lithography machine one by one. This cycle is too long. < p > < p > ASML is an independent company from Philips semiconductor in the Netherlands, which is why ASML is in the Netherlands. In 1984, ASML was officially separated from Philips. Since then, ASML’s popularity has not been high, and its products are not hot. At that time, Nikon and Canon were the two functions that dominated the global lithography market. < / P > < p > in 2002, TSMC first proposed the “infiltrating lithography technology”. At that time, this technology did not receive the attention of Canon and Nikon, because canon and Nikon were advancing to the field of dry lithography. TSMC can only find cooperation with ASML. In 2004, ASML and TSMC jointly launched the world’s first immersion lithography machine. Later, infiltrating lithography gradually became the mainstream of the market. < p > < p > ASML has surpassed canon and Nikon by virtue of immersion lithography, and has been the number one in the lithography market since 2007. From this market, amsl has also seen a new business model, allowing downstream TSMC and Samsung Intel to invest, and binding the interests of ASML and the three major customers. < / P > < p > TSMC, Samsung and Intel jointly invested 4 billion euro in ASML in 2012 to support the R & D and technology update of ASML. After obtaining the support of three major customers, the R & D and production of ASML have also made rapid progress. TSMC, Samsung and Intel acquired ASML shares through investment, and also obtained the priority of supply to achieve a win-win situation. Of course, the three major clients have also successively sold ASML shares, and now they only have a small amount of ASML shares. < / P > < p > 90% of the parts of a lithography machine are purchased globally, involving more than ten companies in four countries. The interests of downstream customers are tied with ASML, and customers of TSMC, Samsung and Intel are important support of ASML. Therefore, a lithography machine can not be manufactured by one company, but needs to integrate the supply chain and downstream customers, through its own technical research Accurate assembly of products. High tech products such as lithography machine are also the crystallization of human wisdom. In today’s globalized world, only through constant cooperation and technology sharing can science and technology progress. It is still a long way to realize chips with domestic advanced technology. Epic Games accused Google of monopolizing the latter, which may have a better chance than apple