The data clearly shows the global “expansion” of GM crop planting area: from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 191.7 million hectares in 2018, with an average annual compound growth rate of 24.0%. Recently, at the international network Seminar on transgenic application jointly held by Chinese society of bioengineering, Asian Association of crop science and ISAAA, Chinese and foreign experts summarized the economic and environmental effects of global genetically modified crops over the past 20 years through a large amount of data. < / P > < p > however, while achieving “overwhelming” social and economic benefits, there are still resistance issues and safety disputes in the field of transgenic technology and application. < / P > < p > “the little cotton bollworm doesn’t eat anything but poles.” Recalling the cotton planting in the early 1990s, Zu Maotang, President of Gaobeidian farmers’ Technical Association of Hebei Province, still “turned pale when talking about insects”, “three generations of cotton bollworm are the most powerful, and they can’t be killed by spraying (Medicine). Some adults can swim in pesticides, and chickens are poisoned to death after eating worms.” In 1997, China approved the planting of transgenic insect resistant cotton. “Each mu of land can produce 500 Jin of seed cotton, and the yield has increased by more than 10 times. Cotton farmers are no longer worried about pests. Transgenic cotton has improved our lives, and everyone is smiling. ” < / P > < p > according to statistics, from 1997 to 2016, 95% of domestic cotton fields applied insect resistant cotton, and the yield increased by 10%. The total income of cotton farmers increased by 156.7 billion yuan, and the average income per hectare (equal to 15 mu) increased by 2470 yuan. < / P > < p > according to a set of data shared by Graham Brookes, an agricultural economist of PG Economics (a company specializing in the economic and environmental impact of the application of new technologies in agriculture), since 1996, transgenic cotton has reduced 139 million kg of pesticide use (by 31%) in China, significantly reducing environmental pollution. < / P > < p > the reporter learned from the meeting that as of 2018, the planting area of genetically modified crops in China was about 2.9 million hectares, ranking seventh in the world, accounting for about 1.5%. < / P > < p > different from the United States, which grows corn, soybean, cotton, rape, sugar beet, papaya, pumpkin, alfalfa, potato, apple and other genetically modified crops, China’s policy on agricultural genetically modified crops is very clear: bold in research, cautious in promotion and strict in management. < / P > < p > in 2018, 26 countries around the world planted genetically modified crops, among which the top five countries, such as the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and India, accounted for 91.0% of the total planting area, occupying an absolute dominant position. < / P > < p > according to Rhodora R., director of ISAAA Southeast Asia Center. Aldemita said that through transgenic biotechnology, the global crop output increased by 824 million tons and the income increased by 225 billion US dollars from 1996 to 2018, which helped tens of millions of farmers out of hunger and poverty. < / P > < p > for example, from 1996 to 2018, the use of herbicides and pesticides in global GM crops decreased by 776 million kg, equivalent to 8.6% reduction in use; 183 million hectares of arable land were saved, biodiversity was protected, and carbon dioxide emission was reduced. < / P > < p > “in 2018, for example, GM crops will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 23 billion kg, equivalent to stopping 15.3 million cars or 48% of the registered cars in the UK.” Brookes said. < / P > < p > Brookes said frankly that in North and South America, some farmers who widely grow herbicide resistant transgenic crops rely too much on glyphosate, which leads to the problem of herbicide resistance of weeds – farmers have to adapt and change the weed control system, which leads to the increase of herbicide use, and the cost is higher than 15 years ago. < / P > < p > however, he said that the problem of weed resistance and the increasing use of herbicides are also the trend of traditional crops. The effect of herbicides used by herbicide tolerant transgenic crops is still better than that of conventional crops, and herbicide tolerant transgenic crops are still more profitable than traditional alternative crops. Similarly, Chinese experts also found that long-term use of transgenic Bt protein gene can enhance the tolerance of Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic insect resistant cotton has no effect on some tolerant populations. < / P > < p > on the safety of genetically modified crops, like most experts and scholars at the meeting, aldemita online told China Science Daily: “so far, we have not seen any harm of genetically modified food to health, nor can we scientifically prove that it will cause any threat to human body.” < / P > < p > however, people are still worried about the safety of genetically modified crops, and the voice of opposition is still fierce. Many opponents believe that the current observation time is too short to make a final conclusion on its genotoxicity. < / P > < p > in fact, in the 1970s, within 20 years after Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA, there was a debate among scientists, such as what degree of scientific genetic research is appropriate and what degree of regulation is appropriate. In 1974, the Asilomar Conference Center in California invited scientists, lawyers and journalists from all over the world to discuss this issue. < / P > < p > at the meeting, some scientists thought that it was dangerous for scientists to “play a leading role in the formulation of public policies”; some people thought that such public debate “itself is a huge threat, and the consequences of advocacy or counterclaim will bring weakening restrictions, or even a ban on molecular biology research”. < / P > < p > the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which came into force in 2003 (167 countries have signed it, but the United States and Canada are not), emphasizes that “modern biotechnology is expanding rapidly, and the public is increasingly concerned that such technology may have adverse effects on biodiversity, while also taking into account the risks to human health”. < / P > < p > in this regard, Adrian dubock, Executive Secretary General of the Swiss golden rice Humanitarian Committee, pointed out in 2014 that the doubts raised by the Convention on biological diversity, especially the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, are the basis of most (not all) arguments against crop genetic engineering. < / P > < p > “the protocol has set a major regulatory barrier for the development of transgenic crop technology, brought a huge cost to the global community, and conflicts with many other goals of the United Nations.” Dubock wrote. < / P > < p > from the debate in the scientific community, to the correction of policy errors, and to many public opinion events around genetically modified crops at home and abroad in recent years, genetically modified crops have fallen into layers of fog, which makes it difficult for the general public to distinguish right from wrong. < / P > < p > in 2018, Chinese scientists published a survey covering more than 2000 consumers in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and cities in China in the Journal npj food science of natural science research. The results showed that 11.9%, 46.7% and 41.4% of the participants supported, neutral and opposed GM food respectively. < / P > < p > according to ISAAA statistics, 88.5% of GM crops are planted in America, 9.5% in Asia, 1.5% in Africa and 0.4% in Oceania, while Europe accounts for less than 0.1%. In an interview with China Science Daily, Brookes online stressed that the consumption of grain and feed using genetically modified ingredients as raw materials or containing genetically modified ingredients in Europe is still very high. For example, the European Union recently imported about 39 million tons of soybean equivalent. < / P > < p > in his view, although the EU effectively ended the competition among local farmers by restricting access to new biotechnology such as genetically modified crops, most European farmers have to compete with imported agricultural products, and they are losing their advantages from the perspective of competition. < / P > < p > however, consumers’ knowledge of biotech crops is still seriously lacking, because a lot of misinformation was provided by people who opposed the use of the technology many years ago. ” Brookes said. < / P > < p > according to the statistics of the study, the concern of EU citizens about the existence of genetically modified organisms in the environment decreased from 30% in 2002 to 19% in 2011, and the concern about the use of genetically modified ingredients in food or drink decreased from 63% in 2005 to 27% in 2019. In contrast, the application rate of transgenic crops in the top five countries, namely the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and India, has exceeded 92.5% (the average of soybean, corn and rape), which is close to saturation. < / P > < p > these countries need to further improve the application rate of transgenic through new crop approval, commercial operation or upgrading of existing varieties for climate change, disease and insect resistance. < / P > < p > “insect resistance and herbicide resistance have made an important contribution to improving the yield of soybean, corn, rapeseed and cotton in the world, reducing the pressure of bringing new land into agricultural cultivated land and protecting biodiversity.” Now, newer traits such as drought tolerance (maize), antifungal (potato) and insect resistance (eggplant) are beginning to play a positive role, Brooks said. < / P > < p > in this regard, Zhang Chunyi, deputy director of Crop Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and vice president of Hainan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, also gave an example: some African countries eat a lot of corn (a kind of sorghum), which can improve the digestibility of its protein through transgenic technology. < / P > < p > “new tools will open more doors to develop a new face of commercialized genetically modified crops.” Mahaletchumy arujanan, ISAAA global coordinator, said. In her view, after more than 20 years of development, now “has ushered in the autumn of this mature technology.”. < / P > < p > however, some participants said that before this, they still need to answer some “questions that may not be fully answered”, “for example, how to make farmers and consumers in various countries realize the benefits of genetically modified crops and the changes they bring to people’s lives.” Aldemita said. < / P > < p > the fourth edition of China Science Journal (2020-10-14) was originally titled “transgenic crops enter” Mature autumn “? 》)Didi Qingju bicycle has entered 150 cities