Real zero sum games are very rare in the world. Sports event is a kind of zero sum game. When two sides enter the same arena, one side wins and the other side loses. An election is also a zero sum game in which one candidate wins and the other loses. However, in the business world, this kind of zero sum game is rare. It is very common that there are many competitors in the same field, and each company has a good performance. < / P > < p > this article is adapted from the interviews of Jeff Bezos at Washington Economic Club in 2018 and Reagan defense forum in 2019. Both are included in the collected writings of Jeff Bezos, a Book jointly published by Perseus books’ public affairs and Harvard Business Review press. < / P > < p > in business, if you want to do better in the competition, the most important thing is to remain strong and flexible at the same time. I think this applies not only in business, but also in military. That’s scale. Scale is a huge advantage. It gives you strength. It allows you to resist attacks from others. If you can avoid other people’s attack, then you will have more advantage, and avoid other people’s attack, which is agility. As you get bigger, you get stronger. < / P > < p > to be flexible enough, the most important factor is the speed of decision-making, and the second important factor is the willingness to experiment. You have to be willing to take risks, be willing to accept failure, and usually people are not willing to accept failure. < / P > < p > I’ve been pointing out that there are two kinds of failures in the world. The first is experimental failure, which is a failure to be thankful for. Another is operational failure. Amazon has built hundreds of fulfillment centers over the years, and we know how to do that. If we set up a new fulfillment center, but it ends in disaster, it is because our execution is not good enough, operation failure is not a good failure. But if we develop a new product or service, or experiment in some way, and it doesn’t succeed in the end, it doesn’t matter. It’s a great failure. What you have to do is to distinguish between these two types of failure and really pursue invention and innovation. < / P > < p > to maintain a business, you need to find the right people, you need people who are innovative. If innovative people are not free to make decisions and take risks, they will flee the organization. You may be able to find them in the beginning, but they won’t work in your company for long because builders like to create new things. In fact, many things look simple, but they are difficult to do. Another problem with competition is not to stay in the same environment forever. That’s why you need innovation, especially in space exploration and networking. < / P > < p > as an enterprise, you need to create such an unfair environment. For decades, we have enjoyed the benefits of an unfair competitive environment in space and technology. I’m nervous because the situation is changing rapidly. The only way to stay ahead and in this unfair competitive environment is to innovate. < / P > < p > in space exploration, our competitors are very innovative. So this is the problem that really needs to be solved. If the opponent you face is not good at innovation, then you don’t need to be so good at innovation. < / P > < p > in terms of competition, it’s not enough to be one of the best companies. You need to plan for the future, and there is likely to be someone as good as you. I don’t want to see that in the future. < / P > < p > for a long time, we have been developing Amazon Web services (AWS) services behind the scenes, and finally brought it to market. By reshaping the purchasing power of enterprises, AWS has become a very large enterprise. Traditionally, if you are a company and need computing power, you will build a data center by yourself, and then install a large number of servers in it. You have to upgrade the operating system of these servers to keep all servers running perfectly. There is too much work to do. However, these jobs do not add any value to the business of the enterprise, but add a lot of meaningless repetitive work to the enterprise. < / P > < p > and that’s what Amazon used to do: build its own data center, and then maintain it. Later, we found that the company’s application engineers and network engineers (that is, those who run the data center) wasted a lot of energy. They held a lot of meetings for these jobs that could not create value for the enterprise. So we found that we can develop a set of enhanced application program interface (API), so that the two groups of application engineers and network engineers can only hold roadmap meetings, and no longer need to hold meetings for trivial work. We hope to build a service-oriented architecture. In this architecture, all services can be used in the enhanced API, and they have enough computing power for everyone to use. < / P > < p > after planning this plan for ourselves, we immediately found that this architecture is applicable to all enterprises in the world, and all enterprises can use it. What really surprised us was that thousands of developers flocked to use these APIs without much publicity. Then, a business miracle never happened. As far as I know, it’s the luckiest case in business history. In the first seven years, we didn’t have any competitors. It’s really incredible. < / P > < p > when I founded Amazon in 1995, Barnes & Noble was launched and launched two years later, in 1997. After you invent a new thing, there is usually competition in two years. We launched kindel, and two years later Barnes & Noble launched nook. We launched echo, and two years later Google launched Google home. If you’re lucky enough to invent something for two years, you’ll have an advantage. Few people can keep a seven-year start advantage like AWS. That’s why I say it’s incredible. < / P > < p > in my opinion, at that time, large and mature enterprise software companies did not regard Amazon as an enterprise software company, so we had such a long time to build and improve this product, making its functions more and more rich, and our team did not relax, so we achieved a huge leading edge. IPhone 12 whole family barrel model exposed: it’s a tribute to iPhone 4