There is no doubt that third generation semiconductors are really popular recently. According to Ifind data, the total market value of 26 third-generation semiconductor concept stocks increased by more than 10 billion yuan in half a month, with the highest increase of more than 100%. In terms of investment, since 2020, eight semiconductor enterprises have made a total investment of more than 43 billion yuan, and the third generation semiconductor projects are in a hot stage in China. < / P > < p > but the real fire comes from media news. China is planning to put great support for the development of the third generation semiconductor industry into the “14th five year plan”. It plans to vigorously support the development of the third generation semiconductor industry in education, scientific research, development, financing, application and other aspects in the five years from 2021 to 2025, so as to realize the independence of the industry, and even realize the independence of the industry Overtake on a curve. The policy of < / P > < p > is the biggest business opportunity. With the support of the policy, will the third generation semiconductor really continue to catch fire? However, from the industrial point of view, it is not easy for China’s third-generation semiconductors to catch fire. There are four major problems. As early as 1987, Cree was established, specializing in SiC semiconductor research. At first, the research and development of bandgap semiconductor is mainly to meet the needs of military and national defense. Subsequently, the U.S. Department of defense and the Department of energy successively launched the wide band gap semiconductor technology program and the next generation technology program of nitride electronics, actively promoting the development of SiC (silicon carbide) and GaN (gallium nitride) wide band gap semiconductor technology. Following the United States, Europe and Japan have also carried out related research. After years of development, they have achieved fruitful results in the research of wide band gap semiconductor materials, devices and systems, and achieved extensive application in the field of military defense. < / P > < p > with the gradual maturity of the application in the military field, the application of the third generation semiconductor has gradually expanded to the civil field. In recent years, a large number of new products and applications based on new technology are rapidly popularized, and the energy consumption of power electronic equipment is also growing rapidly. Power devices are the most widely used semiconductors in the field of energy saving. The bandgap of wide bandgap semiconductors is significantly larger than that of silicon semiconductors, which can effectively reduce the gap between electrons and energy consumption. But it is Tesla’s use of silicon carbide power devices to push the industry forward. < p > < p > the influence of star enterprises is the biggest driving force in the market. Just as Xiaomi technology Lei Jun released Gan mobile phone charger, GaN has been pushed to a climax in China. The production steps of the third generation semiconductor include single crystal growth, epitaxial layer growth and device / chip manufacturing, corresponding to substrate, epitaxy and device / chip respectively. Generally speaking, the third generation semiconductor industry is mainly monopolized by foreign enterprises. SiC: at present, international enterprises are transiting from 4-inch substrate to 6-inch substrate, and there are 8-inch silicon-based substrate under research, while 4-inch silicon-based substrate is still dominant in China. Foreign core enterprises include Cree, Dow Corning, sicrystal, II-VI and Showa electric in the United States, which occupy the main production capacity. Cree occupies 40% of the market, followed by II-VI of the United States and Showa electric of Japan, which together occupy more than 75% of the market. In China, we mainly supply 3-4 inch single crystal substrates, such as tiankeheda, Shandong Tianyue, Tongguang crystal, etc. Gan: Currently, the largest size of commercial compound wafer is 6 inches. For example, Taiwan Wenmao and other international mainstream manufacturers adopt the 6-inch process, of which the mainstream size of GaAs substrate is 6-inch, and 8-inch is under development; GaN substrate is mainly 4 / 6-inch. The market is dominated by Sumitomo Electric, with a market share of about 90%. Domestic manufacturers are mainly 2-4 inches. SiC: epitaxial wafer enterprises are mainly Cree, dowcorning, II-VI in the United States, Roma and Mitsubishi Electric in Japan, Infineon in Germany. American companies account for 70-80% of the global share. Domestic hantiancheng and Dongguan Tianyu have been able to provide 4-inch SiC epitaxial wafers. Gan: epitaxial wafers are mainly supplied by ntt-at from Japan, Soitec Belgium from France, Iqe from UK and Jiajing electronics from Taiwan. Suzhou JingZhan semiconductor, established in March 2012, is the earliest and largest supplier of Gan epitaxial wafers in China, but its market share is still very low. SiC: in the world, 600 ~ 1700V SiC SBD and MOSFET have been industrialized, and the voltage withstand level of mainstream products is below 1200V, and the mainstream enterprises are Infineon, Cree, Roma, Italy semiconductor, etc. In China, Tyco Tianrun, Shenzhen basic semiconductor, CETC 55 Institute and Shanghai Zhanxin Electronics Co., Ltd. are still in the initial stage compared with foreign countries. Gan can be divided into RF devices and power electronic devices. The design companies mainly include EPC, MACOM, transphom, Navitas in the United States, dialog in Germany, etc., and ampleon, which has been acquired by Chinese companies in China. IDM enterprises include Sumitomo electrician and Cree, with market share of more than 30%, and qorvo and MACOM. Domestic IDM enterprises such as Suzhou Nengxun, innosecco and Jiangsu Nenghua have a combined market share of no more than 5%.
foundry companies are led by the United States Universal Communications semiconductor (GCS), steady semiconductor, Japan’s Fujitsu, Cree, Taiwan Jiajing electronics, TSMC, and European Union microwave semiconductor (UMS). China’s three safety integration and Hai Wei Hua core have also been shipped in bulk. < p > < p > the third generation semiconductors in China started late. The “863 Plan” in 2013 clearly listed the third generation semiconductor materials and their applications as important contents for the first time. Compared with foreign countries, the technology gap of the third generation semiconductor in China is obvious, and the stability and reliability are short boards. < / P > < p > many articles introduce the third generation semiconductor gallium nitride and silicon carbide, starting from the first generation of silicon and the second generation of gallium arsenide. One generation is always better than the other. < / P > < p > the annual output value of global semiconductors is nearly 500 billion US dollars, and more than 90% of them come from the first generation semiconductors. According to omdia’s “SiC and Gan power semiconductor report 2020”, by the end of 2020, the global sales revenue of SiC and Gan power semiconductors is expected to increase from $571 million in 2018 to $854 million. The average annual double-digit growth rate in the next decade will exceed US $5 billion by 2029. According to yole’s prediction, the size of SiC Power semiconductor market will increase to US $2 billion by 2024. Among them, the proportion of automobile market in SiC Power semiconductor market is expected to reach 50% by 2024. < / P > < p > from the above data, we can see that the output value of the third generation semiconductor is very small in front of the first generation semiconductor. The development of the third generation semiconductor abroad is not because of the huge business, but because the development of national defense and science and technology information technology needs to use the third generation semiconductor. At the same time, this is an incremental market, and also a growth space that enterprises can seek. < / P > < p > from the perspective of incremental sources, 5g, photovoltaic smart grid, new energy vehicles, etc. are the main incremental sources. According to the development of the third generation semiconductor, its main applications are semiconductor lighting, power electronic devices, lasers and detectors, and other fields. The maturity of each field is different. < p > < p > among the four application fields, the semiconductor lighting industry has developed most rapidly, and has formed a mature industrial scale of 10 billion US dollars. Sapphire based Gan is the most commonly used and most mature material system. Most LED lighting is made by this material system. The fabrication cost of SiC Based Gan is high, but due to its good heat dissipation, it is very suitable for manufacturing low-energy and high-power lighting devices. < / P > < p > in the field of power electronics, the current market size is only a few hundred million US dollars. Its application is mainly concentrated in the field of military advanced equipment, and is gradually expanding to the civilian field. In terms of microwave devices, Gan high-frequency and high-power microwave devices have been used in military radars, intelligent weapons and communication systems. < / P > < p > GaN laser can cover a wide spectrum range, realizing the manufacture of blue, green, ultraviolet laser and ultraviolet detection. Purple laser can be used to make large capacity optical disk, and its data storage disk space is 20 times higher than that of blue light disc. In addition, the purple laser can also be used in medical disinfection, fluorescent excitation light source and other applications, with a total market capacity of 1 billion US dollars. < / P > < p > in China, the third generation semiconductor applications that have received high attention include: Gan charger power IC, GaN base station PA, Gan 5g mobile phone PA, Gan IGBT, SiC SBD, SiC MOSFET. < / P > < p > from the perspective of incremental market, 5g, photovoltaic smart grid, new energy vehicles, these major markets have high requirements on semiconductor technology, which are cutting-edge technologies. The third generation semiconductor in China is in its infancy from materials, design, and wafer manufacturing. In addition to the mature third-generation semiconductor design capabilities of some domestic enterprises, products can be shipped in batches, others are still in the small batch stage. It will take a long time for China’s third-generation semiconductors to lead 5g, photovoltaic smart grid and new energy vehicles. If we have to add a specific time, it will be five years later. < / P > < p > the demand for frontier new markets is not large, and the market of several billion US dollars is less than 1% of the global semiconductor market. Domestic enterprises aim at traditional consumer electronic applications, such as charger power chip, Schottky diode and MOSFET. There are also domestic enterprises investing in the research and development of 5g base station Gan PA, which is a potential market of US $2 billion. Next, we analyze the cost bottleneck of the third generation semiconductor. The cost of mass production is much higher than that of silicon carbide. < / P > < p > 3. The average silicon rod is about 200 cm long. It is said that the third-generation semiconductor material, such a “silicon carbide” 6-inch wafer with a thickness of only 0.5 mm, can be sold for as much as $2000 in the market. The average unit price of 12 inch silicon wafers ranges from US $108 to US $112. In addition to the manufacturing cost and yield, the cost of the third generation semiconductor is many times higher than that of the first generation. < / P > < p > in emerging markets, semiconductors do not look at the price, but there is no quantity and high technical requirements. In the industrial electronic market, especially in the automotive electronic market, the unit price of semiconductors is high and the demand is small, but the requirements for technology and quality are very high. It is a big problem whether the domestic semiconductor enterprises can carry on in terms of time and technical difficulty. A short and fast investment environment will not give enterprises so much time. Without time, how can technology be accumulated? In fact, the most suitable for domestic semiconductor enterprises is the traditional consumer electronics industry. Charger power supply chip, Schottky diode and MOSFET are the most suitable fields for the third generation semiconductor enterprises in China. The cost is the biggest bottleneck to develop and produce these products with third-generation semiconductors to replace silicon. < / P > < p > the biggest bottleneck of the third generation semiconductor is cost, and the biggest bottleneck of China semiconductor is talent. Money can solve many problems, but it can’t solve the current shortage of talents in the semiconductor industry, especially in the third generation semiconductor industry in China. < / P > < p > in China, chips are still very popular, and all walks of life come to make chips. rob