Each year, about two million people suffer from a skin disease called leishmaniasis, which is caused by the leishmanian parasite. Humans have been fighting the parasite for centuries, and some cultures have adopted a primitive form of vaccination to prevent infection. This ancient treatment is called leishmanization, which deliberately infects a person with living parasites. This process produces a mild skin infection, and a person’s immune system has the hope of overcoming the infection and keeping the parasite immune for life. < / P > < p > in a wonderful example of combining ancient treatments with cutting-edge technologies of the 21st century, a team of scientists has genetically edited the leishmanian parasite to limit its infectivity. This allows the parasite to be injected in the form of a vaccine to produce long-term immunity without causing disease. Live vaccines such as < / P > < p > & quot; are the best vaccines, but can cause serious diseases in some people, explains Abhay satoskar, CO lead researcher of the new study from Ohio State University. &We’ve perfected this concept with modern technology, creating a parasite that doesn’t cause clinical disease but can induce immunity. &Quot; < / P > < p > using CRISPR gene editing, the researchers removed two specific genes from the parasite to prevent it from producing a protein called centrin, which is responsible for supporting the parasite’s physical structure. When the parasite lacks centrin, it can still enter the host cell and replicate, but at a significantly slower rate, which means that infection does not lead to disease. < / P > < p > & quot; so we’re basically using the concept of leishmanization, and CRISPR technology has greatly increased the tolerance that allows us to do so, satoskar said. &Parasites don’t proliferate, so they die. But they persist in the body for eight to nine months, which is enough to produce acquired immunity. &In their study, the researchers documented the extensive development and animal testing of this prospective new vaccine. This study shows that the parasites edited by CRISPR do not cause disease in the animal model of sand flies, and the parasites are transmitted by the bite of sand flies, and neither do mice. In addition, in most animal experiments, including mice with impaired immune system, the mutant parasite effectively developed complete immunity. < / P > < p > & quot; multiple animal tests also ensure that the genome does not return to normal, satoskar added. &What’s more, we found that if a sandfly bites the vaccine site and takes the mutant parasite into the wild, the parasite cannot survive. So it’s safe for the environment. &The researchers now hope to start the first phase of human trials in the next two years. Satoskar also said the cost of the vaccine is likely to be less than $5 a dose, providing hope that it will eventually be cheap and easy to promote in the most affected tropical countries. IPhone 12 whole family barrel model exposed: it’s a tribute to iPhone 4