The micro network news, Fujian Jinhua incident, opened the prelude of US sanctions against China’s semiconductor industry, China’s semiconductor industry has gradually become a topic of common people’s discussion. SMIC’s most advanced EUV lithography machine, which has been unable to “arrive” for a long time, has become a major concern of the whole people. A few months ago, there was an old news saying that the circle of friends was crazy, which set off a bigger wave: originally, China started to develop lithography so early, so why is it still under the control of others? < p > < p > lithography is the crystallization of large-scale system, high-end technology and engineering limit, which is known as “the Pearl on the crown” of integrated circuit industry chain. In the 1950s, the United States developed a contact lithography machine. In the 1970s, Perkin Elmer company of the United States successfully developed a 1:1 projection lithography machine. Subsequently, GCA company of the United States launched the “step by step and repeat precision projection lithography machine” to develop the ratio of projection lithography to 1:5 or 1:10. After the concept of the step-by-step lithography machine was proposed, the technical route of the optical lithography machine was basically stabilized, and the subsequent lithography machines basically belonged to this type. The difference lies only in the variation of the light source. Nikon and canon of Japan began to enter the field of lithography in the late 1960s. In China, the use of lithography technology to manufacture integrated circuits began in the same period. In 1965, China’s first integrated circuit came out in Beijing, Shijiazhuang and Shanghai. As mentioned above, in September 1974, the first national large-scale integrated circuit industry conference was held, and the National Planning Commission held the National Conference on tackling key problems of large-scale integrated circuits and basic materials in Beijing. The proposed goal is to [during 1974-1976, break through the key technologies of large-scale integrated circuit technology, equipment, basic materials and other aspects] the four machine department organized the Beijing shanghai electronic industry We will conduct research and development of large-scale integrated circuits, materials and equipment, and break through materials and equipment such as ultrafine dry plate, photoresist, ultra pure reagent, high-purity gas, magnetic field deflection, electron beam coating machine, etc. In December 1975, the second national LSI conference was held in Shanghai; in January 1977, the third national LSI conference was held in Guizhou. It can be said that these three conferences directly led to the first big explosion of lithography achievements of CAS system, electronic department system and local R & D units around 1980s. According to the record of the earliest domestic photolithography machine, it is gk-3 semi-automatic lithography machine (Wu Xiansheng. φ 75mm wafer semi-automatic lithography machine [J]. Semiconductor equipment, 1979 (04): 24-28). This is a contact type lithography machine. In 1978, the gk-4 was developed on the basis of gk-3 by 1445 Institute. The diameter of the wafer was increased from 50 mm to 75 mm, and the degree of automation was improved. However, it is still a contact lithography machine. Working principle and performance analysis of gk-3 semi-automatic lithography machine [J]. Semiconductor equipment, In 1978 (03) < / P > < p > around 1980, the Institute of semiconductors of Chinese Academy of sciences began to develop jk-1 semi-automatic proximity lithography machine. In 1981, two prototypes were successfully developed, and the second stage process test was completed. The process evaluation test of 4K and 16K dynamic random memory devices was carried out. In the same year, the jkg-3 type photolithography machine developed by Shanghai Optical Machinery Factory passed the appraisal and design finalization. It is the first generation of semi-automatic proximity lithography machine in China. As the United States already had contact lithography machines in the 1950s, China was nearly 20 years behind. At the same time, foreign countries began to turn to step and repeat projection lithography in 1978. At this time, the Chinese scientific community also realized that the advantages of the step-by-step projection lithography technology, but limited to the poor domestic technology foundation, it is difficult to realize. However, according to the requirements of the development of microelectronic technology in China during the eighth and ninth five-year plan, a considerable number of step-by-step lithography machines were urgently needed. At that time, the price of an i-line stepper was $1.6 million, that of an excimer laser DSW lithography machine was $2.1 million, and that of a g-line DSW lithography machine was also $1.2 million It’s hard to support the wealth. In this context, shortly after the world’s first DSW lithography machine came out in 1978, the 45th Institute of the Ministry of mechanical and electrical engineering began to track and study the step-by-step lithography machine, benchmarking the 4800dsw of the United States. In 1985, bg-101 step lithography machine prototype was developed and passed the technical appraisal of electronic department. It was considered that it reached the level of 4800 DSW. If the information is correct, it should be the first step projection lithography machine in China, using 436 nm g-line light source. Also in 1985, the scanning projection lithography developed by Shanghai Institute of Optics and precision machinery, Chinese Academy of Sciences, passed the appraisal, filling a blank for the special equipment for large scale integrated circuits in China. According to this time node, the gap between China and foreign countries in the step-by-step lithography machine has been narrowed to about seven years (1978 in the United States). It can be seen that the research and development of domestic lithography machine started in the late 1970s, and until the late 1980s, the technology has been advancing, and has achieved some representative results. From the 1950s to the early 1980s, China’s semiconductor industry flourished and started almost at the same time as the world, which is also the key industry background of domestic lithography research and development. But in the mid-1980s, China has fallen behind. < p > < p > at this time, Japan’s semiconductor industry had developed into a overlord that the United States was also afraid of. By 1984, Nikon and GCA were equal in the field of photolithography, accounting for 30% of the market. Ultratech accounted for about 10% of the market, while Eaton, P & E, Canon, Hitachi, etc. each accounted for less than 5%. In the same year, ASML was born. < / P > < p > when the whole industry is actively exploring new technologies, Batumi does not approve the export of advanced equipment to China due to high prices and “Batumi restrictions”. When 0.5 μ M equipment has been used in foreign process lines, only 1.5 μ M equipment is exported to China, which is three generations behind. In addition, in the 1980s, Batumi stipulated that for DSW lithography machines exported to China, the lens Na must be less than 0.17, that is, it can only have a resolution of more than 2 μ M. It was also in this period that the idea of “make better than buy” began to prevail in China, and the trend of trade, industry and technology was prevailing for a time, and the industry such as integrated circuits was gradually divorced from foreign countries. The industry abandoned the guidelines of independence and self-reliance, and blindly opened up to the outside world. China’s independent scientific research and industrial system was destroyed. In the aspect of R & D, it was fighting alone, and little scientific research achievements were transformed into commercial products. The pace of R & D of domestic lithography machine has been greatly slowed down. By March 1990, the ioe1010g direct step and repeat projection lithography prototype developed by the Institute of Optoelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences passed the evaluation. The working resolution was 1.25 μ m. The main technical indicators accepted the level of gca8000 in the United States, which was only equivalent to the level of foreign countries in the mid-1980s. During this period, foreign lithography light sources have been stuck at 193nm for 20 years, and scientists and industry have been exploring solutions beyond 193nm. TSMC proposed the immersion 193nm technology in 2002, which successfully solved this problem, and made the lithography technology enter a new stage. At this time, the Ministry of science and technology of the people’s Republic of China organized and implemented the “Tenth Five Year Plan” 863 plan of “100 nm resolution 193 nm ArF excimer laser stepper scanning projection lithography machine” major project research and development, planned to complete the pilot production prototype in 2005, and small batch production in 2007. < p > < p > in 2002, when China set up Shanghai microelectronics equipment Co., Ltd. (Smee) in Shanghai to undertake the “Tenth Five Year Plan” lithography project, CETC 45 Institute moved the team engaged in the research and development of step-by-step projection lithography machine to Shanghai to participate in the project. In 2008, the state launched the “02” science and technology major special project to connect and continuously tackle key problems. By 2016, Shanghai microelectronics has produced 90nm, 110Nm and 280nm photolithography machines. However, ASML, which is at the forefront of the world, has already started the research and development of EUV lithography machine, and developed the first EUV prototype in 2010. Due to the high cost, Samsung, TSMC, Intel and other companies jointly invested to promote the research and development. After several years, ASML became the only supplier of lithography machine with process below 7 nm. So far, the domestic lithography machine is more than 20 years behind ASML. Google said the proposed media negotiation rules would put its free services in Australia at “risk”

By ibmwl