Chip, chip or chip. Recently, the topic of chip technology blockade has been hot. The trump administration is considering whether to blacklist SMIC, China’s largest chipmaker, in an effort to crack down on Chinese companies, Reuters reported. Yu Chengdong, CEO of Huawei’s consumer business, has also said that Huawei can’t produce chips, and it is a lesson for Huawei to only do design in the process of globalization. < / P > < p > that’s right. Now no domestic enterprise can undertake the task of manufacturing high-end chips. Why is it so difficult to produce chips? It is still inseparable from high-end lithography machine. However, you may not know that Holland, which is famous for tulips, can produce the world’s top photolithography machines. ASML in the Netherlands occupies 80% of the market share of lithography machine. The price of EUV lithography machine manufactured by ASML in Holland is as high as $100 million, and it may not be available. Even the United States and Japan are not up to the technical level of Holland in high-end lithography machines. Why can’t we make high-end lithography machine in China? How does ASML in the Netherlands do it? < / P > < p > as we all know, both Apple A14 chip and Huawei Kirin 9000 chip need TSMC OEM production, and the production of such high-end chips can not be separated from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography machine. At present, only ASML in the Netherlands can provide EUV lithography machine for mass production. Most people don’t know about ASML in the Netherlands, but you must have heard of Philips, the predecessor of ASML. After Philips began to set foot in transistors and integrated circuits, CCDs and LOCOS were invented successively, which laid the foundation for breakthroughs in transistors and integrated circuits. < p > < p > in 1984, Philips was faced with business difficulties and had to implement large-scale layoffs. ASML was also independent from Philips in that year. As we all know, Philips’ home appliances and lighting products are among the best in the industry, and its century old manufacturing gene has also been inherited from ASML. After ASML focused on the chip manufacturing industry, it has rapidly grown into a strong player in this field. < / P > < p > in fact, from the 1990s to the beginning of the 21st century, Japan’s Nikon and Canon lithography technology was the world’s leading, and ASML was hard to match. ASML knows that it is impossible for ASML to compete with Japanese lithography machines by its own efforts. Therefore, ASML has joined with world-renowned lithography core component manufacturers to make them shareholders of ASML. This not only binds the interests together, but also has the financial support behind it. At that time, the United States was also suppressing Japan’s semiconductor industry. Due to the fact that the U.S. photolithography manufacturers did not have an advantage, after careful consideration, they decided to support ASML, a Dutch enterprise belonging to western countries. However, the United States also proposed that at least 55% of the components in ASML equipment should be purchased from American enterprises. In this way, ASML has obtained a large number of talents in the R & D and production of lithography machines in the United States. With abundant funds, ASML in the Netherlands has gradually become far ahead in the field of lithography. ASML not only eliminated the potential competitors, but also established the dominant position in the high-end lithography market. < p > < p > seeing this, we can understand that it is in the interests of the United States to allow it to become bigger without imposing sanctions. After all, it will not be foolish enough to lift a stone and hit itself in the foot. Some people say that technology is blocked. Can’t we make it with our own technology? In fact, even ASML in the Netherlands can’t build a high-end lithography machine on its own. This is because it involves the global supply chain system and precision instruments such as lithography machine. It can’t be solved without any components and links. < / P > < p > to know, a lithography machine can weigh up to 180 tons, with 100000 internal parts, of which the main parts come from dozens of developed countries in Europe and the United States. Dutch lithography, Germany provides Zeiss lens equipment, Japan provides special composite materials, Sweden provides industrial precision machine tools, the United States provides control software, etc. < / P > < p > at present, the most advanced EUV lithography machine in the industry needs many top technologies in the fields of mathematics, optics, fluid mechanics, polymer physics and chemistry, surface physics and chemistry, precision instruments, machinery, automation, software, image recognition, etc., and the technology is inseparable from talents. < p > < p > ASML has its own system for retaining talents. The company is composed of developing technical, management and project talents, among which technical talents are most valued. ASML will give technical talents a great voice. < / P > < p > unlike other technology companies, ASML will not let management talents completely dominate the development of the company. The company’s chief technology officer can even sit on the same level with the chief executive officer. Such an organizational structure is rare in the whole industry. Therefore, we can see from the system that ASML attaches great importance to technical talents. < / P > < p > with the guarantee of the system, the relevant practitioners can also concentrate on technological innovation, and such a virtuous circle will allow the company to gather more talents. < / P > < p > retain talents and create patents. According to the data, ASML has obtained 12000 patents related to EUV in 2019, which is more than the sum of Nikon and Canon in Japan at that time. From talent management to the benefit binding of global industry chain, ASML of Holland has gradually established its dominant position in high-end lithography machine. < / P > < p > the high-end lithography machine can not be built in a short time by one country, because it brings together the world’s top technology and human wisdom. A foreign engineer once said, “I have adjusted a part for 10 years.”. Therefore, ASML President Peter wennink once said that the high-end EUV lithography machine can never be imitated by China, and China has relevant regulations in the field of intellectual property rights. < / P > < p > so, can we produce lithography machines in China? It is reported that Shanghai microelectronics, the strongest manufacturer of lithography machines in China, has broken through the 28nm lithography machine, although we still have a big gap compared with the Dutch ASML high-end lithography machine. But without 28nm, it is impossible to have a 5nm after opening. The most important thing is that we study it completely independently, and its significance can be imagined. The development of ASML in the Netherlands has brought us enlightenment. First of all, technology is the primary productive force, and strength is the best voice. In the field of high-end lithography, we need key technologies to do interest bundling, so that the industry can not do without us. That way we’ll have the chips to negotiate. < p > < p > ASML knows that the most effective way of cooperation can be established by binding interests through mechanisms. So other companies like TSMC, Intel and other companies want to get the priority of supply, they have to invest in ASML as customers. Secondly, the importance of talents is self-evident. In addition to training talents in this field, we also need to continue to increase the strength of talent introduction, do a good job in intellectual property protection, enterprise support and other measures, so as to create a good environment for talents to indulge in technological research. < p > < p > finally, it is capital investment. The R & D of lithography machine was too expensive. At first, ASML could hardly support it. Fortunately, with the support of the Dutch government and the investment of Samsung, Intel, TSMC and other enterprises, ASML had its present status. Even if it is now number one, it will spend a lot of money on research and development every year. In 2019, they will spend $2 billion on R & D, accounting for 16.7% of revenue. Therefore, it is not contradictory that the company with the highest profit in the world is the first in R & D investment. < / P > < p > the technical blockade will not defeat us, we will continue to remain open, no retreat is the road to victory. Finally, we quote sun Yiqiu, the protagonist of the recent fire drama “ordinary glory”, who said: before the end, how can we know life and death. Global Tech