One of the challenges of exploring space and other places is extreme cold. During NASA’s mission to the moon, the temperature at the south pole of the moon will drop sharply during the night. At some point in the future, NASA hopes to explore Europa, one of Jupiter’s moons, where the equatorial temperature never exceeds minus 260 degrees Fahrenheit < / P > < p > at low temperatures, the gear and gearbox casings are heated. After being heated, a lubricant helps the gears work properly and prevents the steel alloy from becoming brittle and eventually breaking. NASA has been working on a project called bulk metallic glass gear & quot; (bmgg), and the project team has created a material made of & quot; metallic glass & quot;, which can work and survive in extremely cold conditions without heating. < / P > < p > eliminates the need to heat the gearbox and reduces the energy required for spacecraft operation. NASA points out that due to the limited power of the Rover or lander, its operation in cold and dark environments is currently limited. The energy savings from using the new gearbox could extend mission time or allow more instruments to be placed on spacecraft Rovers. < / P > < p > in JPL tests, engineers installed the motor and gearbox on a turntable beam designed to measure the response to impact or strong impact. Liquid nitrogen is used to cool the gears to about – 279 degrees Fahrenheit. The steel was then ejected into the beam to simulate the impact event. < / P > < p > this type of impact test is used to determine whether the spacecraft hardware will rupture during re-entry, descent and landing events. The test also simulated what would happen to gears when ordinary samples were collected at night on the moon. Before each impact test, the researchers poured liquid nitrogen on the motor and gearbox. After the liquid nitrogen is discharged within a few seconds, the impactor is fired at the steel beam mounted on the motor and gearbox. The gear box and motor were tested twice in three different directions. In each demonstration, the gear withstood the impact event at extremely low temperature. Global Tech