One of the most enduring Scientific Mysteries of the past century has been how some organisms seem to have the ability to sense the earth’s magnetic field. Although there are many hypotheses and lots of researches, there is still no definite answer to this puzzle. A new paper, published in the Journal of philosophy of the Royal Society B, proposes a new hypothesis that this unexplained feeling may be the result of symbiotic relationships between animals, and that a particular class of bacteria has the ability to orient along the lines of the earth’s magnetic field. Robert fitak of the University of Central Florida, co-author of the new paper, explains: “the search for a mechanism has been proposed as the last major frontier in sensory biology and described as if we were looking for a needle in a haystack.” < p > < p > for decades, scientists have realized that bees, birds, whales, eels and other organisms have the ability to sense the earth’s magnetic field. This strange feeling is called magnetic feeling, but the exact mechanism supporting this strange feeling has not been fully explained. In the past few years, a new hypothesis about magnetic induction has been proposed, which is called the symbiotic magnetic induction hypothesis;. According to this view, magnetotactic bacteria are the fundamental explanation behind magnetic induction in some animals. Magnetotactic bacteria are a special class of bacteria that are known to align with magnetic fields using special intracellular organelles called magnets. In the new paper, fitak and colleagues present the latest evidence to support the hypothesis that these magnetotactic bacteria play a role in how animals perceive the surrounding geomagnetic field. The most common criticism of the magnetotactic bacteria hypothesis is the lack of evidence for the presence of magnetotactic bacteria in animal tissue samples. In response to this criticism, a large metagenomic database has been developed to show that gene traces of magnetotactic bacteria can be detected in many animal species. < / P > < p > “the presence of these magnetotactic bacteria is largely ignored, or in these large data sets,” fitak said. These data suggest that some types of magnetotactic bacteria can be detected in animal species suspected of having magnetic susceptibility, fitak said. Different types of magnetic field sensing bacteria have been found in North Atlantic right whales, turtles and bats. < / P > < p > fitak added: “I am working with co authors and local UCF researchers to develop genetic tests for these bacteria, and we plan to subsequently screen various animals and specific tissues, such as turtles, fish, spiny lobsters and birds.” The new paper also cites two recent studies and reports the first evidence that bacteria directly affect the magnetic induction of organisms. The first study, published last year in the journal Nature microbiology, found a special type of microorganism called eukaryotic marine protozoa that directly symbioses with magnetotactic bacteria to obtain its magnetic sense. < / P > < p > the second study cited in the paper describes experiments with antibiotics applied to reed warblers, which are thought to rely on Geomagnetism to guide their annual long-distance migration. The study has not yet been peer-reviewed or published, however, it does demonstrate that antibiotic therapy can cause significant interference in the direction of birds. < / P > < p > although this new evidence is cited, the study makes it very clear that this hypothesis is still highly speculative. It is not known how magnetotactic bacteria communicate with host organisms. What’s more, it’s not even known where the bacteria need to live in animals to give them magnetic induction. < p > < p > fitak and other researchers believe that recent advances in metagenomic technology and DNA sequencing will pave the way for new investigations into these issues. Therefore, although it is still very early for the symbiotic magnetic induction hypothesis, the new paper shows that it is an effective hypothesis worthy of more research. < / P > < p > “even if symbiotic magnetic induction does exist widely, the further challenge is to unravel the communication mechanism between host and magnetotactic bacteria, such as how birds perceive bacterial response to environmental magnetic field changes?” The author asks in the article. “In short, the symbiotic magnetic induction hypothesis is a hypothesis worth considering.” Google said the proposed media negotiation rules would put its free services in Australia at “risk”

By ibmwl