A team from the University of Arkansas has successfully developed a circuit that captures the thermal motion of graphene and converts it into an electric current. Physicists say graphene based energy harvesting circuits can be integrated into chips to provide clean, unlimited low-voltage power for small devices and sensors, rather than relying on external batteries for power to some extent. < / P > < p > the breakthrough is a branch of research conducted at the University of Arkansas three years ago, which found that individual graphene, a single-layer carbon atom, fluctuates and bends in a way that has potential energy harvesting capabilities. This idea, however, is controversial because it refutes the famous physicist Richard Feynman’s famous assertion that the thermal motion of atoms (the so-called Brownian motion) cannot do work. < / P > < p > however, University researchers found that the thermal movement of graphene at room temperature does induce alternating current in the circuit, and their special design also increases the power delivered. The researchers say they found that the switching behavior of the diodes amplifies the power delivered, rather than reducing it as previously thought. < / P > < p > the scientists in the project were able to use a relatively new field of physics to demonstrate that diodes increase the power of circuits. This emerging field is called stochastic thermodynamics. The researchers said that graphene and the circuit have a symbiotic relationship. When the thermal environment affects the load resistance, the graphene and the circuit are at the same temperature, and the heat will not flow between them. This is an important discovery because the temperature difference between the two would violate the second law of thermodynamics. < / P > < p > other findings include that the relatively slow movement of graphene induces low-frequency currents in the circuit, which is technically important. This is important because electronic devices operate more efficiently at low frequencies. The next goal is to determine whether DC current can be stored in capacitors for later use, and miniaturization of these devices is also planned. IPhone 12 whole family barrel model exposed: it’s a tribute to iPhone 4