“I’ve never been very fond of magic,” says George devorsky, author of the article. Magic is fun, but it always makes me feel a little offended. When I was cheated by magicians, I always felt that they had somehow invaded my brain and exploited my cognitive weakness. It’s like my brain was hacked in. ” < p > < p > to tell you the truth, magicians use dazzling hand movements, a variety of distractions, and all kinds of hallucinations to achieve this goal. Although we don’t want to admit it, our brains are not perfect and we are bound to be deceived by these tricks. However, an article recently published in the journal Science: perspectives points out that it is not only humans who are deceived by magic, but many animals are also vulnerable to it. And the author of this article points out that, from a scientific point of view, this is a good thing. They even encourage scientists to use magic as a tool to study animal thinking, behavior and perception. < / P > < p > “the psychology involved in Magic provides a powerful methodological tool for the scientific community to test perceptual blind spots and cognitive impairment in a variety of species.” The study authors wrote in their paper. The study was led by Elias Garcia Pellegrin of Cambridge University. “Studying whether animals can also be fooled by magic effects that can deceive humans can provide us with an excellent opportunity to study attention, perception and spiritual ‘time travel'” The idea of < / P > < p > is not as whimsical as it seems. Over the past decade, this concept has gained more and more attention as scientists have used more and more magic effects or magic methods in studying animals. It is pointed out that many researchers have used magic in the laboratory intentionally or unintentionally. These experiments, of course, are not meant to amuse animals, but to examine their reactions to these logical inconsistencies. < / P > < p > “it’s not new, but it’s a great idea to use magic to study animal cognition,” said kimmela Center for animal Laurie Marino, neuroscientist and executive director of advocacy, explains, “as pointed out in this article, scientists have been using ‘deception’ methods such as visual hallucinations to study the cognitive and perceptual abilities of animals and humans for many years. In fact, deception is the mainstay of cognitive research. ” As Marino points out, this article reminds us that “we can study other animals in new and ingenious ways that we never thought of before.” The core idea of this is: if a magic trick can deceive both humans and animals, it means that there must be something in common between humans and animals in terms of psychology, cognition and perception. Inspired by this idea, scientists can compare not only humans and animals, but also animal species that are related to each other. In addition to proving that some species have certain abilities, magic can also highlight the differences in perception, attention and intelligence among different species. What’s more, these experiments can lead scientists to new research fields. < / P > < p > “I think the most interesting thing about this article is that it suggests that we can compare the thinking of humans and animals with that of other animals by judging whether humans and animals have” cognitive blind spots “for specific magic tricks “If animals are also deceived by magic tricks and illusions that deceive humans, it shows that humans and animals have a lot in common in terms of psychology,” Marino pointed out It seems strange that “being deceived” actually means that animals possess intelligence or other abilities. But in fact, people, dogs and birds, who are cheated, have a certain expectation of the outcome. And the reason why we have expectations shows that we will reflect on the past, we know how things should develop, and we will predict future events. Interestingly, the differences in cognitive abilities among different species suggest that some species have their own magic tricks. For example, the authors of the previous paper suggested that some birds of the family Corvidae would hide their food secretly, and at the same time, they would do some “fake actions” to mislead those who want to steal. Chimpanzees also “look away from what they want to distract competitors.” The ability of < / P > < p > to play these tricks shows that the cognitive ability of these animals has a certain degree of complexity. For example, they know that there are other thinking subjects, and they have the concept of “object permanence”, that is, after an object leaves the line of sight, the image of the object can be formed in the mind and kept in the memory. However, there is a key problem: when animals are cheated, they will not express their surprise or confusion in the form of language. So how do scientists know if an animal has been cheated? The authors point out that to solve this problem, we can measure the time that animals spend thinking about this trick. If “animals observe a certain time much longer than normal events,” it can be said that the event surprised animals. Another challenge is that not all species interact with humans in the same way. Birds, for example, seem interested in such experiments, but chimpanzees are not. The authors suggest that this obstacle can be overcome by training animals. < / P > < p > “using the ideas presented by the authors of this paper, we can further study animal thinking in harmless, non-invasive ways,” Marino points out, “and such research is also easy to conduct the necessary conditional control.” As for the possible ethical risks of these experiments, Marino said he was not worried, “the only problem may be the basic ethical issue of” keeping the animal enclosure in the laboratory. ” < / P > < p > well said. When conducting animal experiments, scientists must always keep in mind the “3R” principles: reduction, optimization and replacement. No matter what kind of experiments are carried out on animals, these basic principles must be followed without losing dignity. Google said the proposed media negotiation rules would put its free services in Australia at “risk”

By ibmwl