Scientists have been puzzled by the existence of giant cyclones with regular geometry around Jupiter’s poles for many years. New research has revealed how these giant cyclones first formed. In 2016, after NASA’s Juno probe entered the orbit of Jupiter, it was found that giant cyclones arranged in geometric shapes at the two poles of Jupiter. In the north pole of the planet, eight eddies surround a central vortex, while six eddies exist in the South Pole. < / P > < p > this composite image taken by the Jupiter infrared Aurora mapper (jiram) on NASA’s Juno probe shows Jupiter’s North Pole central cyclone and eight cyclones surrounding it. Li Cheng, a planetary scientist at the University of California at Berkeley, said: “we were surprised to find that Jupiter’s polar regions are completely different from other planets, and we have never seen these cyclones arranged in a regular structure.” < / P > < p > the diameter of each giant cyclone storm is 4000-7000 km. They circle Jupiter’s south pole and north pole respectively. They form a circle 8700 km away from Jupiter’s north and south poles, maintaining almost the same distance. These cyclones and their geometry have lasted at least four years since Juno reached Jupiter’s orbit. < / P > < p > for scientists, how these cyclones remain stable remains a mystery. On earth, cyclones drift toward the poles, but gradually dissipate over land and cold water. In contrast, Jupiter has neither land nor ocean, which raises the question: why didn’t cyclones simply drift to the poles and merge? (for example, Saturn has a cyclone in each polar region.) “All previous theories predicted that the main cyclones over the polar regions of giant planets would play a dominant role in the polar regions, as we observed on Saturn, or still be in a chaotic state,” Li said. What we’re seeing at Jupiter means that previous theories are wrong, and we need some new theories to support them < p > < p > in order to explain the mystery of the formation of Jupiter’s cyclones, Li Cheng and his colleagues developed a computer model based on the size and speed of cyclonic storms observed by Juno. They focused on which factors could maintain the stability of these geometric shapes without merging. < / P > < p > this image taken by Juno spacecraft in November 2019 shows that there are six cyclones in a hexagonal arrangement at the south pole of Jupiter. On a scale, the outline of the continental United States overlaps over the central cyclone, while the latest cyclone overlaps the outline of Texas. < / P > < p > the researchers found that the stability of these models depends in part on the depth of cyclones entering Jupiter’s atmosphere, but mainly depends on the anticyclone ring around each cyclone – that is, the rotation direction of the anticyclone ring is opposite to that of the vortex direction of each cyclone; the less shielding of the anticyclone ring will lead to the merging of cyclones; the shielding of more anticyclone rings will promote the cyclones to each other Separation. For example, scientists still don’t know why the Jupiter vortex just occupies the moderate anticyclone shielding area, and now we don’t know what causes the Jupiter cyclone to be in such a favorable position. < / P > < p > at present, scientists are studying how these cyclones first formed. One possibility is that they formed near Jupiter’s poles, which is where they are now; the other is that cyclones form in other regions and then migrate to the polar regions. The second one is more likely. This may be a more difficult question to answer. Li Cheng said: “because it involves the detailed three-dimensional model of how vortices are generated, there are many parameters of vortices that we don’t know, such as their vertical structure, but we can try different situations to observe which vertical structures may produce the wind speed profiles that we have observed, and these wind speed profiles vary from vertical to horizontal The straight structure moves forward. ” Global Tech