Astronomers say that ever-growing super large satellite constellations such as SpaceX’s Starlink will inevitably change astronomy and possibly even change the appearance of the night sky seen by ordinary observers on the ground around the world. That’s the central idea of a new report released on Tuesday, which also outlines strategies to reduce the impact on science, as thousands or possibly tens of thousands of new satellites will be launched in the next few years. < / P > < p > “there is no combination of mitigation measures to eliminate the impact of satellite constellations on optical infrared astronomy,” Connie Walker of noirlab, the National Science Foundation, told reporters and scientists by zoom phone on Tuesday. < / P > < p > the report comes from the satellite constellation 1 (also known as satcon1) seminar, which was held by noirlab and the American Astronomical Society from June 29 to July 2, and attended by more than 250 astronomers, engineers, commercial satellite operators and others. < / P > < p > particularly affected will be the upcoming space observatories, such as the Vera C. Rubin Observatory under construction in Chile. It has a very wide view of the sky. “Rubin Observatory and the 30 meter giant telescope to be launched in the next decade will greatly enhance human understanding of the universe,” said Jeff hall, CO chairman of satcon1 at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona Hall explained that such a project cannot be carried out in space beyond the orbit of a very large constellation. < / P > < p > the brightness and interference of small satellites designed to provide global broadband access have surprised scientists and operators such as SpaceX, which are scrambling to find solutions. < / P > < p > the report outlines six possible ways to reduce damage to astronomical observations. These include setting height limits for the satellite, darkening the surface of the satellite or using a sun visor like SpaceX’s visorsat, orienting the satellite to reduce the reflection of sunlight, eliminating effects in image processing, and working with operators to avoid pointing the telescope at the satellite. < / P > < p > there is only one suggested method in the report that is expected to completely eliminate the impact. “Launch less or no low earth orbit satellites. No matter how impractical or impossible, this is the only way to achieve zero astronomical impact. ” “There’s no place to hide,” says Phil puxley of the University Association for astronomical research < p > < p > hall pointed out that major constellation operators SpaceX, Amazon and oneweb attended the satcon1 seminar. SpaceX has an important advantage in the competition. At present, there are more than 600 satellite linked satellites in orbit, and hundreds more satellites will be planned to be added. Most of the impacts seen at present are from satellite chain satellites. < / P > < p > “throughout the process, SpaceX has set a good example for astronomy and industry to co manage this issue, and we certainly hope to see other operators follow suit,” Hall said. < / P > < p > part of Tuesday’s briefing explains the efforts of some astronomers to observe satellites purposefully to find ways to mitigate their effects, and to see how restoration measures like visorsat work. Lori Allen of noirlab explained that visorsat needed more data, but observed that the experimental satellite of SpaceX, darksat, had less reflective coating, and other satellite chains were about twice as bright. < / P > < p > “although we are still in the early stage of understanding and addressing the threat posed by large satellite constellations to astronomy, we have made good progress and there are good reasons to hope for positive results,” said Paula szkody, President of the American Astronomical Society from the University of Washington, who attended the symposium. Chinese version of K-car: reading a10e design drawing exposure