Epidemiologists are usually cautious, but they have made a “startling” and “epoch-making” assessment of the results of a new biotechnology experiment aimed at preventing mosquito borne diseases. Experiments in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, have shown that the release of a modified mosquito carrying Wolbachia can prevent the insect from transmitting certain viruses, leading to a sharp drop in dengue cases there. The results provide the strongest evidence that Wolbachia technology, developed in the 1990s, can rid the world of some deadly mosquito borne diseases, the researchers said. < / P > < p > “it’s important to look at all the data carefully, but the 77% drop is really extraordinary, which means great hope.” Said Philip McCall, a biologist at the Liverpool School of tropical medicine. < / P > < p > the trial was coordinated by the world mosquito program (WMP), a non-profit organization, which hopes to deploy the mosquito to dengue fever endemic areas around the world. < / P > < p > the methodology used in the Yogyakarta trial was pioneered by a team led by Scott O’Neill, a microbiologist and WMP director at Monash University in Australia. < / P > < p > about 60% of insects carry Wolbachia, but the bacteria do not naturally infect Aedes, which transmit dengue fever, Zika virus and many other viruses. < / P > < p > since the 1990s, the O’Neill team has developed laboratory populations of Aedes infected with Wolbachia and found that these Aedes do not transmit viruses, including dengue virus. < / P > < p > the team first started releasing the mosquitoes in parts of northeast Australia, where there are periodic outbreaks of dengue fever – a disease that affects nearly 400 million people worldwide and causes 25000 deaths, mainly in low-income and middle-income countries in Asia, the Pacific and Latin America.
bacteria tend to spread quickly to local mosquito populations. A study conducted in Townsville, Australia in 2018 found that the incidence rate of dengue fever dropped linearly after 4 million mosquitoes were released in different neighborhoods. ADI utarini, a public health researcher at jatama University in Yogyakarta, and his colleagues divided nearly 400000 people in the city into 24 clusters. Twelve clusters were randomly selected in the area where mosquitoes were released and 12 clusters were located in the control area. < / P > < p > they then compared where dengue patients (most of them children) had been in the past two weeks to determine if they were in areas where mosquitoes had been released. < / P > < p > due to the increasing number of coronavirus cases in Indonesia, the trial in June was several months ahead of schedule. In areas where mosquitoes carrying bacteria were released, dengue fever cases were reduced by 77 per cent, resulting in a 3 / 4 reduction in people’s risk of the disease. Nicholas Jewell, a biostatistician at the London School of hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the University of California, Berkeley, said he had been studying infectious disease interventions since the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s. < p > < p > Jewell believes that their estimate of the decrease in dengue cases is conservative, as many people may move between areas where mosquitoes carry the bacteria. As the basic data have not been released, many questions remain unanswered, such as how the level of protection changes in different regions and its association with the prevalence of Wolbachia among local residents, McCall said.
LSHTM epidemiologist Neal Alexander said, “the decline in incidence rate of dengue fever provides strong evidence to support the use of Wolbachia.” < / P > < p > studying how people’s mobility between treated and untreated areas affects conservation outcomes should help determine the generalizability of releasing carrier mosquitoes elsewhere. WMP hopes to release Wolbachia carrying mosquitoes in areas that cover 75 million dengue hot air risk populations in the next five years and 500 million people in 10 years. Didi Qingju bicycle has entered 150 cities