According to foreign media reports, Joel Podolny, President and vice president of Apple University, published an in-depth article on Apple’s organizational structure in the Harvard Business Review today. Podolny explores the structure of apple and how it has helped Apple grow over the years in this article entitled “how Apple is organized for innovation.”. < / P > < p > Podolny explains how, since Steve Jobs returned to apple in 1997 to take over the company, he fired the managers of each independent business unit and transformed apple into a “single function organization”. It is understood that this model has been used by apple today. < / P > < p > “as in jobs’s previous tenure, CEO Tim Cook has a unique place in the organization chart of Apple’s major products, including design, engineering, operations, marketing and retail. In fact, except for the CEO, the company has no general manager in the traditional sense: they control the whole process from product development to sales and make judgments based on the income statement. ” < p > < p > Apple’s structure stipulates that the person with the most expertise and experience in a particular field should have the decision-making power in that field, and the company relies on technical experts rather than managers to make key decisions. < / P > < p > in Apple’s financial structure, executives’ bonus is based on the financial success of the whole company rather than the success of the Department, which also provides more freedom for product decision-making, because the release of a single product has no specific financial pressure. “The finance team does not participate in the product roadmap meetings of the engineering team, and the engineering team does not participate in pricing decisions,” Podolny wrote < / P > < p > all Apple executives, from senior vice president to the following positions, need to have deep expertise in their respective fields, have a deep understanding of the details of the work under their leadership, and be willing to cooperate and make collective decisions. One of Apple’s principles is: “leaders should know the organizational details of their subordinates at three levels.” Global Tech