Recently, Gao Fu, director of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and prevention and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, revealed that he had been vaccinated with experimental new coronavirus vaccine at an international academic seminar, which aroused people’s attention to the progress of vaccine research and development. At the same time, the global demand for vaccine under the pressure of epidemic situation is becoming more and more urgent. Can vaccine research and development keep up with the urgent needs? Recently, the Chinese Academy of Sciences interviewed the Chinese Academy of Sciences. < / P > < p > since the outbreak of Xinguan epidemic, many teams at home and abroad have started to tackle key problems in vaccine development. In particular, good progress has been made in vaccine research and development of the five routes supported by China. These “on the road” vaccines support each other and guarantee each other, which can guarantee the success of vaccine research and development to the greatest extent. < / P > < p > “many people asked academician Gao Fu what kind of vaccine and which family they had vaccinated. This kind of question shows that we have made a lot of progress in vaccine research and development, so we have many choices.” Dai Lianpan, a researcher at the Beijing Institute of life sciences / Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, told China science news that the number of vaccine research and development, validation and clinical application presents a “pyramid” shape, which is a very favorable situation. According to statistics, there are about 250 new coronal vaccines under development worldwide, including mRNA vaccine, replication or non replication virus vector vaccine, recombinant protein vaccine, inactivated virus vaccine and so on. At least 17 new coronal vaccines are under clinical trial evaluation. < / P > < p > “at present, the global spread of the epidemic situation is not abating. After the vaccine is successfully developed, the gap will be huge. It is impossible for a company or a vaccine to meet such a huge demand. Multiple enterprises are required to participate in the production and provide a variety of effective vaccines. ” Dai Lianpan said that at present, the R & D Progress of each team is different, but on the whole, a pyramid of “R & D verification approved clinical” has been formed, which is conducive to the final emergence of excellent vaccines. Dai Lianpan also said that in order to minimize the risk of clinical trials, the target population of vaccines currently under development is generally within the range of 18-65 years old, and the work of vaccines and new vaccines for teenagers and the elderly is also being promoted. According to Dai Lianpan, the Institute of Microbiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Beijing Academy of life sciences are also promoting the research and development of two new coronal vaccines, which are progressing smoothly. < / P > < p > one of the new coronal recombinant protein vaccines developed by the team of Gaofu and Yan Jinghua in combination with vaccine manufacturers has been approved by the State Drug Administration to enter into clinical trials on June 19; the other new crown vaccine of recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus vector is in the pre clinical preparation stage after the research team signed a joint research and development cooperation agreement with a vaccine manufacturer 。 < / P > < p > he pointed out that the antigen of the new coronal recombinant protein vaccine is a dimer antigen of spike (s) protein receptor domain (RBD) based on structural design, which is the most important antigen part of the virus. Because the expressed antigen is a protein component, it is safer in the process of use and process production. At the same time, the dimer antigen has a unique structure, which does not Carry any form of foreign label, with independent intellectual property rights. < / P > < p > however, the new coronavirus vaccine based on chimpanzee adenovirus vector also abandoned the complete S protein of the new coronavirus in antigen selection, and also chose the antigen subunit designed based on independent intellectual property rights as the vaccine target. Dai Lianpan said that chimpanzee adenovirus was selected as the vaccine vector because the pre-existing immunity against the vector was very low in the population and had good immune effect. < / P > < p > in addition, this choice is also based on previous experience – in early 2018, Gaofu team cooperated with relevant units and achieved success in the development of Zika virus vaccine based on chimpanzee adenovirus vector. < p > < p > on July 20, the Lancet published the preliminary report of phase 1 / 2 single blind randomized controlled trial of adenovirus vector vaccine developed by Oxford University and pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca, which is also based on chimpanzee adenovirus vector. Dai Lianpan told China Science Daily that the vector vaccine developed by the team and vaccine manufacturers belongs to the same technical route as the Oxford University AstraZeneca vaccine, and the team is greatly encouraged by the achievements of Oxford University in this stage. < / P > < p > in the research and development of a vaccine, after the design phase and concept verification, the candidate vaccine should be verified by a series of small animal and large animal (primate) experiments, and then through the complex pre clinical preparation, enter the clinical phase III human experiment to fully verify the effectiveness and safety; if everything goes well, the process and specifications before the large-scale production of the vaccine should be improved Finally, the production and application of vaccines. In Dai Lianpan’s opinion, on the one hand, it benefits from the scientific research foundation laid by each team before, and on the other hand, it benefits from the efforts of the scientific research personnel who have the mission to seize every minute. < p > < p > take the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Institute of life sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences as examples. It is understood that they began to explore coronavirus including Middle East respiratory syndrome (mers) virus several years ago, and built a series of software and hardware platforms. In particular, the design strategy based on RBD dimer antigen has been successful in mers vaccine research and development. The research team has further expanded its application in the development of other β – coronavirus vaccines and formed a set of effective general vaccine development strategies. At the same time, in this race against the epidemic situation, the belief and persistence of researchers “vowing to succeed” under great pressure is also the key to achieve such a rapid development of vaccine. However, Xu Kun, Zheng Tianyi, Han Yuxuan and other postdoctoral and graduate students of the core team also rushed back to the laboratory during the Spring Festival and put themselves into the fight. < / P > < p > in order to speed up the experiment, they often carry out several experimental schemes at the same time – one experiment is finished, and the result may be a or B. they prepare two schemes a and B to advance at the same time. < / P > < p > although the two vaccines currently under development have shown potential, it is still a long way to go before they are finally approved for marketing. The team will continue to make every effort to promote the vaccine research and development process. It is said that “gta5” will be launched on Google cloud game platform stadia