NASA announced that eight countries, including the United States, have signed an agreement called the Artemis agreement NASA announced its intention to launch the “Artemis agreement” as early as may, after cooperating with the US State Department and the national space commission to put forward a set of draft rules for exploring the moon. The name of the document refers to NASA’s & quot; Artemis & quot; program, an ambitious plan to send the first female and a male astronaut to the moon. NASA wants to work with a number of countries on the program, and the agency has developed the Artemis agreement to ensure that other countries can agree on best practices for sending robots and people to the surface of the moon. < / P > < p > NASA released the draft agreement to other countries, and after obtaining their opinions, the agency put forward the final document, including standards for lunar mining and how to deal with conflicts on the lunar surface. NASA director Jim bridenstine said the main goal is to put everyone on the same front in lunar exploration and avoid any international misunderstanding or conflict in the future. “When we think of the Artemis agreement, what we need to do is to establish a code of conduct that every country can agree to,” bridenstine said at a press conference before the announcement. < / P > < p > the seven countries that signed the agreement with the United States are Australia, Canada, Japan, Luxembourg, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. NASA said it also had exchanges with other countries interested in signing, but the seven countries were able to go through the inter agency process as quickly as possible. According to NASA, this means that more countries may soon sign the agreement – even before the end of this year. Mike gold, NASA’s Acting Deputy Director of international and inter agency relations, said at the press conference: “this first announcement is largely a beginning, not an end to the accession agreement.” < / P > < p > it is worth noting that Russia was not included in the initial list, which is NASA’s largest partner in manned space and the international space station. Dmitry Rogozin, head of Russia’s space program, has made it very clear that he is not a fan of the agreement or NASA’s & quot; Artemis & quot; program. When NASA first announced the agreement, Rogozin likened it to an “invasion” of the moon. On Monday, Rogozin told a panel discussion at the International Astronautical Congress that the & quot; Artemis & quot; plan is “too US centric.”. < / P > < p > long before the birth of the Artemis agreement, countries all over the world have signed an important international agreement focusing on how to explore space. The agreement, known as the outer space treaty, entered into force in 1967 and provided that space exploration should be a peaceful activity. It also said that countries should not place weapons of mass destruction in space, and that countries should not make demands on other countries. < / P > < p > however, the provisions of the outer space treaty are rather vague – which means there is a lot of room for interpretation of the various provisions. The goal of the Artemis agreement is to provide more clarity on the way the United States wants to explore the moon without going through a slow treaty making process. “We are doing this to be consistent with the outer space treaty,” bridenstine said He added that NASA is trying to “create a dynamic that will enable the outer space treaty to be truly implemented.” < / P > < p > one of the major things NASA hopes to make clear in the agreement is that countries can own and use resources from the moon. As part of the Artemis Project, NASA hopes to extract lunar materials, such as lunar soil or water ice. The outer space treaty prohibits countries from making demands on another planet, but it is the policy of the United States that countries and companies can own materials they extract from other worlds. “Article II of the outer space treaty states that you cannot take possession of the moon for national sovereignty.” Bridenstine said. “We fully agree and support that. We also believe that, just like in the ocean, you can extract resources from the ocean. But that doesn’t mean you have the ocean. You should be able to extract resources from the moon. We have resources, but we don’t have the moon. ” < / P > < p > this is an interpretation of the outer space treaty, but not everyone agrees. Last week, a pair of researchers wrote in the journal Science, calling on countries to express their objections to this explanation. The United States should negotiate space mining through the UN treaty process. “NASA’s action must be seen as what – a coordinated strategic effort to reorient international space cooperation in favor of short-term U.S. commercial interests, with little regard for the risks involved,” the researchers wrote in the journal Science. < / P > < p > the agreement also outlines other things, such as & quot; safe areas & quot; — areas established where work is carried out on the moon that other countries should not interfere. The agreement also calls for the preservation of heritage sites, which may refer to areas where NASA’s Apollo landers landed on the surface of the moon. The document deals with transparency, data sharing, registration of space objects and other issues. < / P > < p > another topic involved in the protocol is the concept of interoperability, that is, the spacecraft of various countries should be designed and built with the hardware of various countries in the world. Even countries that have not signed an agreement can reach an agreement on this. On Monday, Russia’s Rogozin called on NASA to design a lunar orbiting space station called gateway, one of the main elements of Artemis, so that future Russian aircraft can dock with the station. < / P > < p > in the final analysis, the Artemis agreement is still only a set of guidelines, without any clear implementation mechanism. If a country signs the agreement and violates one of its provisions, there are no practical consequences. However, bridenstine hopes that the participation of other countries will be sufficient to ensure that they act in accordance with the agreement. “I think there’s a lot of pressure to put on those countries that choose to join the Artemis program but don’t follow the rules,” he said More Samsung devices can now run Android applications on PC through your phone