According to foreign media reports on September 15, Beijing time, at present, the universe is beginning to become a little strange. In recent years, cosmologists have been troubled by the difference in the expansion speed of the universe. According to the ancient light released by the early universe, they can analyze the expansion speed of the universe, but obviously the expansion speed of the modern universe is too fast. Scientists have come up with an important clue that we have ignored the basic elements of the universe, or how they are mixed together. At present, scientists have put forward a second important clue – “the standard model of the possible formation of the universe”. At the end of July this year, scientists announced that the modern universe looks unexpectedly thin, and galaxies, gases and other substances are not clustered as expected. An earlier study gave a similar hint, but the latest analysis based on seven years’ observation data is the most clear independent evidence to point to anomalies so far. Michael Hudson, a cosmologist at the University of Waterloo in Canada, said: “if astrophysicists were brought together now, all the discussions would revolve around the above results.” Like most methods of measuring the large-scale structure of today’s universe, this research is full of technical challenges and difficulties, and it is possible that the final result is accidental. However, some researchers want to know whether the more bizarre the measurement method can predict the discovery of a new cosmic medium. < p > < p > the main difficulty in studying the structure of the universe is that the universe is invisible. Astronomers can observe large cosmic structures in the region where galaxies gather into bright clusters, but they still can’t detect the dark gas beams, which are woven into a huge cosmic network in the form of nodes. To make matters worse, most people think of galaxies and gas trajectories as decorative wires on a solid framework that makes up most of the invisible “dark matter” of the universe. < p > < p > this latest survey is the most perfect technology to reveal the invisible things in the universe. When the light from distant galaxies reaches the earth, it passes through dark matter fibers and dark gas clouds, and the denser regions will produce gravitational pull on the galaxy light, causing the light path to be distorted. When the light from distant galaxies reaches earth-based telescopes, it has undergone subtle distortions and may be squeezed into an exaggerated elliptical structure. Then, astronomers try to plot invisible dark matter by measuring the shape of a large number of distant galaxies in vast regions of the universe. < / P > < p > in this latest study, “kids” is an astronomical wide area survey, which observes 31 million galaxies 10 billion light-years away from the earth. Then astronomers use these observations to calculate the average distribution of hidden gas and dark matter in the universe. The results show that the cosmic gas and dark matter are more than the previous universe model, the cold dark matter model( Λ CDM) is 10%. < / P > < p > from a statistical point of view, this difference is so great that uneven sampling results in an error probability of about 1 in 1400, which is far higher than the strict standard in this field (the error probability is 1.7 million). According to Marika Asgari, a cosmologist at the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom, this kind of intense differential data can be thought-provoking or intriguing. More importantly, other independent measurements support the finding that today’s universe appears to be thinning. “This is another set of alarms,” Hudson said He tried to explain the mysterious matter hidden in the universe by observing how galaxies float in the universe. If these mysterious materials are perfectly distributed in the universe, the expansion process of the universe will separate all the cosmic matter in a drift motion called “Hubble flow”. However, the universe is full of gaps and dark matter rich superclusters, whose gravitational pull galaxies closer, while cosmic gaps allow galaxies to “drift freely.”. By measuring the supernova’s “special velocity” – the velocity level away from the Hubble current, Hudson and his colleagues mapped the hidden mass of the universe. < / P > < p > in 2015, Hudson suggested for the first time that the universe had not yet gathered enough matter, and subsequent local velocity maps depict the equally puzzling smooth movement of matter. He and his colleagues published a research report in July this year, inferring a lack of cosmic mass, which is almost similar to the findings of the thousand degree survey (Kids) – the gas and dark matter in the universe are 10% thinner than the previous universe model. < / P > < p > in addition, in the past eight years, scientists have conducted at least 12 surveys using different technologies and found that the universe today is a little thin. Each study is meaningless in itself, but some cosmologists are increasingly skeptical that all measurements are below theoretical predictions rather than uniform distribution of cosmic matter. < / P > < p > If today’s universe starts to thin, scientists still don’t know what it means. The standard model of the universe is very consistent with the observation results. Theorists can’t add new data at will. The most accurate measurement of the early universe comes from Planck’s cooperative project, which released the final results in 2018. Daniel scolanic, a cosmologist who studies the expansion rate of the universe at Duke University, USA It’s hard to come up with research results that don’t break through Planck’s measurements, said scolnic. In order to solve the original problem of the expansion of the universe, they need a phenomenon that can give the universe an extra thrust, but to solve this new anomaly, they must weaken the gravitational influence that makes the universe condense. When the two questions were put together, Julian lesgurues, a member of the Planck cooperative group and a theoretical cosmologist at Aachen University of technology, said: “it’s really hard to make a reasonable explanation of these two issues. It’s like a nightmare!” For example, in order to explain the expansion speed of the universe, some theorists tried to add “dark radiation” theory to the early universe, but they had to balance the extra cosmic radiation with extra cosmic matter, which would make the universe thicker. Therefore, for the observed universe today, it is necessary to create additional interactions between various dark components to make the universe thinner. < / P > < p > another possibility is that the dark matter gathered together in the universe will be transformed into dark energy, thus causing the separation of cosmic matter; or it may be that the earth is in a huge space in the universe, which leads to the distortion of our observation results. Or the two anomalies may not be related, Hudson said: “I haven’t observed anything convincing, but if I were a theorist, I would be very excited now!” < / P > < p > with the increase of observational data, one or two interpretation views will be overturned. The thousand degree survey (Kids) is one of the three weak gravitational lens surveys currently under way, the other two are the international dark energy survey in Chile, and the Japanese “super focus camera” (hyper) based on the Javier Subaru Telescope “Prime cam”. Every survey can scan different areas and depths of the universe. The latest results of the dark energy survey will be released in the next few months. The survey covers five times the universe and everyone is looking forward to the next big discovery in cosmology! < / P > < p > Michael troxel of Duke University in the United States, who works on weak gravitational lenses in the dark energy survey, praised the kids team for taking this technology to a new level of precision and covering unprecedented space. But he also stressed that mountains of technical challenges make it difficult to understand a measurement method in depth. At billions of light-years away, galaxies appear to be just pixels, making the analysis of their shape very complicated. Researchers also need to know how far away each galaxy is from us, and the uncertainty of distance may weaken or exaggerate this tension. 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