Daniel Garcia Martinez, a paleoanthropologist at the National Center for scientific research of the United States, published a study in the progress of science on October 8. The discovery is of great significance to the study of human evolution, which means that the breast of Neanderthals is not the result of development, but determined by genes, that is, it may be inherited from early Homo erectus. Compared with modern people, adult Neanderthals have shorter, deeper and wider breasts. These anatomical features are related to the Neanderthal body, which has a wide pelvis, strong bones and strong muscles. This is also related to the fact that they need a lot of energy and oxygen for metabolism. However, so far, it is not known whether these differences were identified at birth or during later development. < / P > < p > in order to study this problem, Martinez cooperated with his international counterparts to reproduce the chest shape of four Neanderthals for the first time by using virtual reconstruction and traditional geometric morphometry, showing the evolution process of Neanderthal chest from birth to 3 years old. The results show that the thorax of Neanderthals in infancy, like other anatomical regions such as mandible, has shown different characteristics from modern human species; the thorax of Neanderthals in infancy is the same size as that of modern adults. < / P > < p > if these characteristics are determined by genes, it means that differences between human species exist at birth and become more obvious as individuals grow up. Nevertheless, the similarity in chest shape and development between Neanderthals and other species such as Homo erectus suggests that their short stature is not only inherited from their parents to their children, but also has evolutionary genetic characteristics. In addition, this study also shows that the shape of the thorax may not be unique to Neanderthals. Early Homo erectus also has this feature, which may be related to the huge energy demand of metabolism. Neanderthals also have larger nostrils than modern humans in infancy. Martinez said that although the scientific community has basically reached a consensus on the study of Neanderthal thorax, there is still a long way to go in studying the evolution of human thorax. Global Tech