It’s been a long time since we’ve seen the technology superpowers so tit for tat. On December 17, Facebook took the lead in publishing a full page “big character” in the New York Times and other media, with the headline: “for the sake of small companies everywhere, we have decided to stand opposite to apple.” < p > < p > Facebook said that more than 10 million small companies employ and reach new customers through their targeted advertising tools every month. Apple’s restrictions on IDFA (advertising identifier) on IOS and its control of application tracking make it impossible for small companies to accurately launch advertisements, which also shakes the business model of free services provided by advertising profit-making platforms. < / P > < p > “60%, without targeted advertising, the sales of these small companies will drop by 60%.” Facebook said it also questioned Apple’s policy on apps tracking user data. “All of this will force the company’s business model away from free to subscription and other in app payments, both of which directly benefit apple.” Dan levy, Facebook’s advertising executive, pointed out that “Apple’s doing this is” anti competitive. “Facebook also publicly supported Epic Games’ lawsuit against apple, which was removed from the national game fortress night for bypassing Apple’s in app purchases. “It’s time for the EU’s DMA to set boundaries for Apple Apple is using its own app ecology to harm Facebook. ” < / P > < p > even today, Apple CEO Tim Cook has rarely responded to the above “accusations” on Twitter: “users should have a choice over the data collected and how the platform uses it. Facebook can continue to track users across apps and websites as before, and app tracking transparency in IOS 14 just requires them to ask for your consent first. ” < / P > < p > at a time when everyone is terrified about the abuse of user data, Apple’s response seems to be a little dauntless, as if it is just trying to ensure the right of “informed consent” of users. What has Apple hurt in this wave of consumer fear? What did you save? < / P > < p > in order to understand how the small companies Facebook is using IDFA for data collection and precise delivery, we must first understand IDFA, which is the unique identifier bound to the iPhone. Internet companies use this identifier to track user behavior and record the number of downloads or purchase conversions obtained by advertising, and advertisers use this identifier to determine how much advertising expenses they pay to each traffic platform. < / P > < p > for example, after browsing a certain product on the a e-commerce platform, you will see the advertisement of the same product when you open the news client B. It is precisely because two a and B applications read the IDFA of your iPhone. This may also happen: when you mention milk powder to your friends on wechat, and then switch to the e-commerce app, you will see products related to milk powder, just like the device is “monitoring” you. < / P > < p > IDFA, the app’s “switch” for collecting user data, was previously turned on by default. But in June, the silent contract was torn up by apple. On IOS 14, IDFA is changed from “default on” to “default query”, and the query is made on the initial interface of the app opened by the user. It is generally believed that most users will choose to close the IDFA. As a comparison, less than 10% of the users would take the initiative to find the hidden IDFA close button. < / P > < p > and the denial of authorization by most users in the future will make IDFA become “in name only”. Apple’s “active elimination” of IDFA has dropped a bomb on the digital advertising industry. For example, in August this year, Facebook conducted a small-scale test on the IOS 14 beta version, and the result was that advertising revenue dropped by 50%. Later, due to strong opposition, Apple announced that it would postpone the update until the beginning of next year. < / P > < p > after Apple announced its IDFA update policy, users generally held a positive attitude, because for them, the process of data collection, exchange and application was like a completely closed black box. Users don’t know exactly where their data is used and shared, and technology companies don’t disclose this process intuitively and transparently. < / P > < p > this “Opacity” has become the source of users’ fear. Whenever the appropriate advertisement appears on the user’s electronic screen, it will aggravate some users’ fear. However, it should be noted that data sharing after “desensitization” is a reasonable and legal business. Applications and platforms don’t show what you are or what you look like in the process of grabbing data, generating tags, and sketching portraits, because the law requires these platforms to “avoid pinpointing specific individuals when using personal information.”. After being labeled and anonymized in the past, what technology companies can obtain is actually an indirect, group portrait. The attitude of public opinion towards Apple’s new deal is almost one-sided, which indicates that ordinary users have “misunderstanding” about digital advertising and even the Internet platform that provides free services. Part of the reason why users can enjoy the free services provided by the platform is that the digital advertising system is supporting the supply. In other words, under the premise of legal compliance, Internet platforms with profit-making needs need users to exchange their “data”. < / P > < p > in the next few months, Apple’s restrictions on IDFA will come into effect. In addition, mainstream browsers are gradually stopping supporting third-party cookies. Safari and Firefox have disabled cookies by default, and chrome will stop supporting third-party cookies before 2022. < / P > < p > the above data acquisition methods from marketing to “equipment” will be eliminated by technology giants. One of the reasons is the distrust tendency of users. This kind of distrust also highlights the disadvantages of this data acquisition method. Once the user does not authorize once at the beginning, the previous advertising marketing strategy will be invalid. < / P > < p > for the small companies maintained by Facebook that use large advertising platforms to launch, the restrictions on IDFA mean that apps can’t send the collected data back to the past. They can’t find the same user among different applications, so they can’t take targeted delivery to attract customers. And they don’t have a better alternative to reach potential consumers in a short period of time. < / P > < p > restricting IDFA does not mean that users can be “monitored” and “sold” directly. In fact, people don’t get fewer ads. it’s just that the accuracy of the ads is going to drop dramatically, and the ads you receive will be more random and irrelevant. As early as two years ago, apple designed an ad tracking framework for IOS, skadnetwork, as an alternative. Like IDFA, it can track the effectiveness of advertising. The difference is that instead of tracking specific users or devices, skad only tracks “behavior.”. However, for advertisers, Apple’s alternative solution can only achieve the goal of understanding the click or installation of advertising. They can’t deposit the data of user characteristics and optimize some in-depth events after installation. As a result, skadnetwork is still ignored by advertising platforms and advertisers. < p > < p > the reason why Apple betrayed the “rules” is essentially the difference of business model and product strategy. “Privacy” has been an important “selling point” of Apple products in recent years. In Safari browser, it automatically blocks the long-term cross page tracking of users from the advertising platform, leaving the data collection and processing to the local device for processing. The privacy tips can be seen everywhere These appease the user fear the practice, is undoubtedly effective. Cook repeatedly said on various occasions, “we don’t treat our customers as products.”. However, Apple’s “elimination” of general ID is also quietly promoting the formation of another industry pattern – big media also started to make their own ID. Facebook, Google, Alibaba, Baidu, Tencent and byte skipping, which have grasped a large amount of user data, have built their own advertising platforms. These head Internet platforms often have account and user name systems that can be used to locate. Now, without IDFA data, advertisers can only rely more on the head advertising platform. Frederic Jouve, general manager of liveramp Asia Pacific, a well-known marketing technology platform in the United States, said, “big media has the ability to build its own ecosystem with its own identifier, forming a self-protection and relatively closed walled garden.” At the same time, the data deposited by these companies are only used in their own ecology, which is undoubtedly pushing the market to fragmentation and monopoly. However, in recent years, with the panic of users on data security and the “damage” of apple and other companies to the industry, they also began to shake the founder of the platform order, the operating system manufacturers. < / P > < p > as early as April this year, Xiaomi launched the “flare” function in its own operating system MIUI 12. It is similar to the new function of IOS 14. When the application program views the user’s clipboard, obtains the user’s geographical location in the background, or calls the functions such as microphone and camera, this function will trigger the “interception network” and send a pop-up window notice to the user in the foreground. In the privacy module of the “mobile phone manager” application, in the form of a log, the user’s microphone was called, the clipboard was checked, and other related behaviors were counted in the form of log. In this interface, users can turn off the permissions they think are being abused. < p > < p > the screenshot of the function part of the MIUI 12 flare. The left side shows the self startup of the app, and the right side shows the wake-up situation of the app. MIUI < / P > < p > Xiaomi found that after the operating system was launched, the number of times that developers asked for the highest permissions from the users was decreasing. The “flare” function really reminds the compliance of the app on the MIUI platform. Who started it, who started it, whose startup request was rejected by the system… The information that should have been known to users is now clearly displayed. < / P > < p > just a few days ago, apple updated IOS 14.3 to introduce app “privacy” information into the app store. On the specific app introduction page, users can see that “privacy” information can be divided into three categories: “used to track your data”, “data associated with you” and “data not associated with you”. “Data for tracking you” refers to the user or device data collected by app for targeted advertising or advertising evaluation. “Data associated to you” refers to data associated with a user’s identity through a user account, device, or other details on the app. “Apple has exposed all the ways Facebook tracks you.” Some netizens listed more than ten screens of Facebook’s app “privacy” information on twitter, and many people called it good. < / P > < p > like the liveramp link mentioned above, it also launched a neutral third-party solution ATS (authentication based traffic solution). This process can be understood vividly as: when an advertisement request is made, the ID is put on an envelope and then sent to different marketing technology platforms. When they get the envelope, open it and read it