These brief moments are likely to be the last precious moments of your life.

as we all know, space travel is an exciting journey. In 1982, Valentin Lebedev, a former Soviet astronaut, felt the rocket swing left and right and seemed to be out of balance Finally, he felt himself off the ground and screamed with excitement when his fellow astronauts went into space, but they didn’t know why.

although Liebe Czechoslovakia and his companions were very excited at the beginning of their space trip, they soon disappeared. His mission in the “salute 7” space station lasted for seven months. At the beginning of a week, he felt bored. In fact, at this time, the space station was still running at a high speed like the rocket carrying them into space, keeping the speed of 8 km / s. however, they did not seem excited any more. What’s more, it was the boredom and silence of space life.

usually we tend to think that boredom is a very direct response to monotonous activities. After all, very few people claim that they like washing dishes or paying taxes. If you do, it will make people think that you are out of your mind. Boredom is an indirect expression of emotion. For decades, studies have shown that boredom is both mysterious and painful, and there are amazing differences in the ability of people to deal with monotonous life.

James danckert, a researcher at the boredom lab at the University of Waterloo in Canada, said: ‘I think everyone has experienced boredom, and some people are very good at dealing with boredom.

in 2014, social psychologists at the University of Virginia found that participants were absent-minded, bored and empty in the experiment. The experiment was to lock the participants in a single room. The results showed that about 25% of women and 67% of men felt bored after 15 minutes alone in the house, and deliberately used the indoor power supply equipment to shock themselves. One of the participants was very bored To their own body nearly 200 times. In addition, a man recreated a Babylonian feast based on a clay cookbook 3750 years ago.

on the other hand, some people actively look for things that are considered boring to do. In 1986, the hermit Christopher Knight) drives to a forest in Maine, where he has lived for 27 years. He claims that he has never been bored in the forest, although he admits that he spent most of his time in the forest doing nothing.

the earliest records of boredom can be traced back to Roman times, when Seneca, a philosopher at that time, may have begun to complain about the long tradition of boredom. In a dull correspondence with a friend, he asked, “how long do we have to endure the same thing?” Then he went on to write: “I don’t try new things, I don’t see anything new, I’m disgusted with my current situation.”

after that, the word “acedia” appeared in the middle ages. It originated from Greek, meaning “indifference”, which was regarded as a kind of evil indifference or negative emotion by Christians.

although the English word “boredom” was discovered in the early 19th century, it was not mentioned in one of his novels by the author Charles Dickens, which was accepted by the public.

Nowadays, people’s life seems to be boring everywhere. It is sometimes described as a plague of modern society. As early as 2016, a French worker was accused of “job burnout” by his former boss. Finally, the boss won the lawsuit and the “tired” worker was dismissed. Since the mid-1990s, a new form of boredom has emerged in the world – “mobile phone boredom”, that is, people browse mobile phone applications and chat software aimlessly. Now, even the pets at home have “mobile phone boredom”, addicted to watching smart phones.

for a long time, psychologists have different opinions on the definition of boredom, which makes it possible to explain why some people have chronic boredom, while others can lead a rich and diversified life without a continuous hobby of entertainment.

in the 1960s and 1970s, some researchers simply defined boredom as the feeling of repetitive tasks, which led to the surprising idea that boredom can actually raise someone’s “level of arousal”, attract your attention and respond to what’s going on around you. For example, in a study that seemed to support this view, military volunteers were asked to press a button when they saw a flash in a box, resulting in a high level of alertness and excitement that was considered to be boredom. At the same time, the “888” scale, which is more commonly used to measure the degree of boredom, is often used to measure the degree of boredom of participants, such as the “888” scale. In this case, if they show that they are easy to focus, they are not easily bored.

at present, psychologists know that there are at least five types of boredom, including “calibrated boredom”, that is, when you are distracted, you feel like you don’t know what to do; “reactive boredom”, that is, you think over and don’t take practical actions against the group that feels oppressed, that is, aggressive teachers or work unit superiors; and “exploratory boredom” means that you feel uneasy And look for a way out: “apathetic boredom”, that is, you feel relaxed and free, but not compatible with the world around you; in addition, there is a newly discovered way of boredom – “indifference boredom”, that is, you don’t feel good or bad, but you can’t control your emotions.

research has shown that no matter what type of boredom you experience, boredom leaves a relevant feature in the mind. Researcher Dan conducted an experiment in which they scanned the brains of unsuspecting volunteers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine, during which they played videos of two men drying and cleaning clothes, and occasionally two men flattening their clothes while drying.

interestingly, researchers found a link between boredom and activity in a “default mode network,” a set of interconnected brain regions that are usually associated with an absent-minded state. When you don’t have any other tasks to do and nothing happens around you, your brain becomes active.

boring signals really tell you that you can’t interact with the world, which will lose control over the things around you and will be less efficient. Like other negative emotions, such as anger, sadness, boredom can turn into motivating us. What we really want, what we think is meaningful use of our own intellectual resources.

if so, it may help to explain why some people can live alone for many years, while others are ready for death electrocution after living alone for 15 minutes, because they can’t stand lonely and boring life. Some of the objective conditions of the environment can make people feel boring, but only a few people will think that they are boring, some people will feel uneasy and find a way to turn the situation around – they will inject a sense of purpose into their consciousness.

take Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield as an example. In sharp contrast to Liebe Czechoslovakia, Hadfield obviously never experienced boredom during his trip to the international space station in 2012, although he had less communication with his peers and only dealt with repetitive tasks.

more than once, Hadfield publicly said, “only boring people get bored”! It is reported that he carried out a number of missions during space travel, performing David Bowie’s “space oddity” in weightlessness after work. He said: “during space travel, if you only talk with your peers, it will become boring.”

the bad news for people who are prone to boredom is that this susceptibility is associated with a range of other problems, such as impulsive behavior, drug abuse, gambling addiction, compulsive cell phone use, depression, physical pain, and trauma. Interestingly, it also seems to be associated with some personality disorders.

a personality disorder that produces boredom is narcissism, which is actually a narcissistic autism, that is, people have an exaggerated sense of their own importance, which is usually the characteristic of some politicians and is a kind of “covert narcissism”. Often these people think they are brilliant, but they don’t get the praise they deserve. They want the whole world to know their importance.

no one knows for sure the correlation between boredom and personality disorders such as narcissism, but the early theory is that if there is a gap between your own abilities and your goals, you will make yourself doomed to failure, which will lead to your disillusionment and boredom. Another view is that once a covert narcissist gets empty compliments from the people around them, they lose interest and begin to think that many things are boring.

in fact, boredom is only one of the side effects of covert narcissism. For example, recessive narcissists have lower mental health, while obvious narcissists are relatively happy and have higher self-esteem.

other personality characteristics related to boredom include anger and nervousness. Some aggressive drivers are prone to “road rage” when driving vehicles, and their emotions fluctuate greatly. In addition, some people are prone to be neurotic, and have a high degree of anxiety, guilt and jealousy. In short, boredom is often not a good sign, partly because of a lack of emotional control.

we need to try to understand the causal nature of these relationships, but we haven’t really done this yet. For example, in the relationship between boredom and depression, is boredom prior to depression? Is it a risk factor for depression? The answer may be yes.

the final question is, are these easily affected conscious behaviors acquired, or are boredom inherited? Like all human emotions, boredom is likely to be a combination of acquired practice and innate genetic factors. It is likely that astronaut Hadfield has practiced his ability to deal with boredom in his childhood. At the same time, he also pays attention to the ability training, especially in his career as an astronaut. He knows how to enrich himself in the boring space travel.

so when people find themselves complaining that life is so boring, think about how astronauts Hadfield and Liebe Czechoslovakia spent their space travel. You may find that when you are bored, it’s just a matter of perspective.