Why are some people so cruel that they can attack innocent people who do not pose a threat? Sometimes they don’t even let go of their children? How does this abnormal behavior come into being? What is the purpose? In 1658, the French philosopher Bryce Pascal concluded that the existence of human beings is the glory of the universe, but also the dregs of the universe! Through the long history of mankind, the dark side of human nature does not seem to have changed. We have love, but we also have hate; we help others, but we also hurt others; we have reached out to help, but also inserted a knife into the body of friends. < / P > < p > if someone is angry out of revenge or self-defense, we can understand, but when someone intentionally hurts someone who is not threatened, we ask, “how can you do this?” < / P > < p > people do things to be happy or avoid pain. For most of us, hurting others makes us feel guilty for their pain, and we don’t like it. This shows that people hurt innocent people for two reasons – either they don’t feel the pain of others, or they like to feel the pain of others. Another reason why some people hurt innocent people is that they still find threats, and they believe that people who do not endanger their health or money may still threaten their social status. This will help to explain some puzzling behaviors, such as people deliberately hurting people who have helped themselves financially. According to the theory of free society, letting others suffer means that we hurt them. However, some philosophers are against this view. In the 21st century, can we still understand cruelty as justice? < / P > < p > some people get pleasure from hurting or humiliating others. They are typical sadists. Sadists are more sensitive to other people’s pain than ordinary people, and enjoy such abnormal pleasure. At least they will continue to abuse until the end, and finally become calm. < / P > < p > people usually associate abusers with murderers, but in fact, there is another kind of abusers who are not extreme. They are ubiquitous in the crowd and are accustomed to experiencing “abusive behavior” every day. They are called “daily abusers”. < / P > < p > everyday abusers get pleasure from hurting others or watching them suffer. They may like bloody and cruel movies, and think that fighting is more exciting and torturing is more interesting. According to statistics, about 6% of college students admit that they get happiness from hurting others. < / P > < p > the daily abuser may be a “network jet” or a school bully. In role-playing online games, they usually try to harass or irritate other players, quarrel with other players or launch language attacks in the game. They will be addicted to violent online games, and the more they play, the more involved they will become. < / P > < p > unlike sadism, psychopaths don’t hurt innocent people, and if they do, it’s just because they get pleasure from it. Psychopaths show an urge to get something, and if harm can get them, they will. < / P > < p > psychopaths do this because they are less likely to feel compassion, remorse, or fear. They can understand the feelings of others, but they will not be infected by others. Psychopaths are very dangerous. For thousands of years, people have punished people who intentionally hurt, tortured or killed others by means of legal sanctions and moral constraints. However, we have to deny that psychosis is a powerful prediction of someone’s unjustified violence. < / P > < p > we need to know whether we meet a psychopath, and we can make judgment and analysis by simply observing his face or by having a brief communication interaction, which, unfortunately, is usually realized by the mentally ill. They will pay attention to their own dress up and try to make a good first impression on others. However, about 8% of male prisoners and 2% of female prisoners are psychopaths. However, not all mental patients are dangerous. Antisocial psychopaths may seek stimulation from drugs or dangerous activities. Prosocial psychopaths seek stimulation in the process of bold pursuit of novel ideas. Their innovative behaviors shape our society and change our world. But it can be good or bad. < / P > < p > no one really knows why some people become sadists? Some speculate that sadism is an adaptive behavior that helps people kill their prey when they hunt animals, while others believe that this abnormal behavior encourages people to gain power. Nicola Machiavelli, an Italian philosopher, once said, “it is the times, not the people, that create chaos.” Consistent with this, neuroscience suggests that masochism may be a survival strategy, triggered in difficult times. When certain foods become scarce, our neurotransmitter serotonin levels drop, which makes us more likely to hurt others, because hurting others brings pleasure. < p > < p > psychosis may also be an adaptive behavior. Some studies have shown that higher levels of psychosis are associated with higher fertility. Others, however, have found the opposite, probably because psychopaths have a reproductive advantage in harsh environments. < / P > < p > in fact, psychopaths can thrive in an unstable and competitive environment. Their abilities make them manipulators. Their impulse and fearlessness help them to take risks and gain benefits in the short term. In the movie Wall Street, the psychopath Gordon Gekko made millions of dollars, but while psychosis may be an advantage in business, it can only give men a weak leadership advantage. The link between < / P > < p > and creativity can also explain why psychosis exists. According to mathematician Eric Weinstein, the more common view is that less likeable people are more innovative. However, if people’s environment supports creative thinking, the connection between freaky psychopaths and creativity is less close, and some quick thinking people can produce innovative thinking. < p > < p > sadists and psychopaths usually exhibit some characteristics, such as narcissism and authoritarian behavior. These characteristics are combined to be called “personality dark factor”, or D factor for short. < / P > < p > these characteristics have a large genetic component, so some people may be born with mental disorders, or parents with higher “personality dark factors” can transmit these characteristics to them by abusing their children. Similarly, some people often see the behavior patterns of people with “dark personality factors”, which will also be affected by them, so as to reduce the cruel behaviors It plays an important role. The abuser will enjoy the humiliation and injury of others. It is often said that the inhumane person will make us suffer more. These victims will be abused by the abuser, and then they will be more vulnerable to attack and harm from others. < / P > < p > this makes sense, and studies have shown that if someone breaks social rules, our brains think their faces are less human, making it easier for us to punish those who violate the rules. According to the psychologist Paul Bloom, the most cruel human behavior may be the loss of human nature. Some abusers hurt others because they think that people are hard to bear pain, humiliation and damage. For example, during World War II, German Nazis deliberately belittled and abused Jewish residents, humiliated, tortured and killed innocent Jews. This is because the Nazis regarded Jews as public enemies and regarded it as “natural” to humiliate and torture Jews. < / P > < p > sometimes people hurt “good people.” suppose you’re playing an investment game, and you and other players have the opportunity to invest in a group fund. The more money you put in, the more you pay, the more you pay. The fund will pay bonuses to all participants, whether they invest or not. < / P > < p > at the end of the game, you can pay to punish other players (based on how much money the player has invested). In doing so, you will lose part of the money you earned, and you will also have to pay part of the money to the player who chooses to punish. In short, your actions are malicious. < / P > < p > some players choose to punish those who invest little or no money. However, some players will pay to punish those who invest more than themselves. This behavior seems unreasonable. Generous players will give you greater returns. Why stop them? < / P > < p > this phenomenon is called “do good destruction”, which is widespread all over the world. In the primitive society of hunting and gathering, good hunters would be embarrassed and envied by other companions for catching large-scale prey, although good hunters would let tribal companions share more meat. < / P > < p > “doing good and damaging” is due to our anti dominant tendency. In the above-mentioned investment game, a player who is not good at and does not like to invest may think that the player who is better at investing will become an ideal partner and will gradually occupy a dominant position in the game, posing a threat to himself. As the French Victor Voltaire said: “to do the best is not to succeed.” < / P > < p > in the film whiplash, a music teacher uses extreme methods to motivate his students. We may shrink in the face of this extraordinary and cruel exercise. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche says that people have become disgusted with the cruel training methods. Nietzsche believes that very extreme and even cruel training methods can make teachers criticize students, but this is based on the interests of other people, and people can also treat themselves cruelly to make themselves the expected people. Extreme training helps to cultivate people’s courage, endurance and creativity. Should we let others and ourselves suffer to improve their abilities? < / P > < p > we now know that the potentially terrible long-term effects of being maimed by others, including physical and mental health damage, are increasingly recognized. At the same time, the idea that people have to endure pain to grow up is also questionable. Positive life events, such as falling in love, having children and achieving great goals in life, can promote people’s growth. It is easy to lead to abuse of power and selfish sadism through cruel training methods. We should help others with love and protect them from greed, hatred and fear. Life may be cruel and reality may be cruel, but we can choose to be confident and face all kinds of difficulties bravely. (Ye Qingcheng) < a ref = http