They are called the “super Scissor hands” of the scientific community because they have created the “sharpest” and “Cheapest” genetic “scissors” in history, the gene editing technology that can cut life. Unexpectedly, two female scientists with “Scissor hands” in the 2020 Nobel Prize in chemistry, Jennifer dodner, Professor of the University of California, Berkeley, and Emmanuel sarponge, Professor of the German Institute of infectious biology, praised their efforts to uncover the significance of crispr-cas9, a natural immune system, for gene editing. < / P > < p > there are so many scientists who are famous for their gene editing technology. Why did these two women scientists win the Nobel Prize in chemistry? < / P > < p > “I know a lot of outstanding scientists who have never been associated with it in my life, which has nothing to do with whether they are outstanding scientists,” said Jennifer dodner, who, before receiving a congratulatory message from nature, did not even know that the winner this year was himself. It can be said that when it comes to gene editing, the famous name of “Jennifer Donner” can never be avoided. < p > < p > in 2012, Jennifer dodner and Emmanuel shar Ponge jointly revealed the magic power of CRISPR CAS, a natural immune system, to the world for the first time. The discovery of this magic “gene scissors” really excited the entire scientific community. In fact, it is a long and arduous way for human beings to explore gene editing. Due to the discovery of a variety of highly efficient targeted nucleases, targeted gene editing technology has developed rapidly. Before the emergence of CRISPR CAS gene editing foundation, three common technologies were large-scale nuclease technology, zinc finger nuclease Technology (ZFN) and transcription activator like effector nuclease Technology (talen). < p > < p > in the early stage of gene editing research, large-scale nuclease technology is one of the most common technologies. However, this technique is not only limited by the wide range of natural nucleases, but also difficult to adapt to the human genome. Since then, scientists discovered zinc finger protein in 1984 and developed ZFN technology. However, the emergence of this technology has brought about another new problem: on the one hand, the identification of zinc finger sequence of specific DNA needs to be determined by library screening, which leads to the huge workload of the whole gene editing project, which is “time-consuming, laborious and laborious”; on the other hand, because the screening of zinc finger nuclease is very difficult, it is easier to lead to more complex The off target effect of heterozygotes occurred, which led to cytotoxicity. In view of the above factors, gene editing technology in ZFN technology period is still in the stage of “feeling the stone and crossing the river”. In 1989, scientists successfully cloned an AvrBs3 protein from plant pathogens; 23 years later, scientists formally proposed talen technology based on this, and gradually became the mainstream gene editing technology. Compared with the “predecessor” ZFN technology, talen technology has become simpler as a whole, and to a certain extent, it improves the problem that ZFN technology is easy to miss target. It was in the same period of 1990s that scientists accidentally discovered that there was a high degree of homologous sequence repetition in E. coli genome, and these repetitive sequences were separated by regular sequences. As more and more similar repeats have been found in other microorganisms, they were officially named CRISPR in 2002. Meanwhile, a series of conserved related genes (CAS) were found nearby. It can be said that CRISPR CAS gene editing technology has completely changed the embarrassing situation of “expensive” and “expensive” gene editing. As one of the most breakthrough emerging technologies in recent years, CRISPR CAS gene editing technology only needs to use cas9 enzyme, the guide RNA that can recognize target DNA. In other words, scientists only need to “order” a piece of guide RNA, that is, they can rewrite the genes of any organism, including human cells, with higher efficiency and precision. They can “cut” genes at less than $30 hardware cost. They can upgrade agriculture and medicine with more user-friendly gene editing technology, and treat more “incurable” genetic diseases for human beings Disease offers more possibilities. < p > < p > in 2012, Jennifer Donner and Emmanuel shar Ponge jointly published a paper, which theoretically explained the biological phenomenon of CRISPR CAS system, and opened the mysterious veil of this “gene scissors” to the world creatively and creatively, which provided a solid theoretical basis for the “fixed-point” tailoring and editing of genes. < / P > < p > their achievements are like a stone thrown to the calm lake, which soon triggered a series of new waves of research and development in the industry The paper of Dr. siksnys was published in the Journal of the National Academy of Sciences. The CRISPR system of Streptococcus thermophilus was recombined in E.coli, and it was confirmed that the CRISPR system needs at least three components: cas9 nuclease, crrna and tracrrna. In January 2013, Zhang Feng, a Chinese American scientist from MIT and brode Institute, and George church, a professor of genetics at Harvard University, successively published in science The journal published a paper to report the successful application of CRISPR CAS gene editing technology in mice and human cells, and successfully implemented the theoretical achievements of Jennifer and emmanueller in gene editing of mammalian cells With the joint efforts of many scientists, human gene editing technology has been rapidly promoted to a new height. < p > < p > for this award, although many international journals, including nature, thought that “Zhang Feng’s absence was unexpected”, some voices, including Rao Yi, President of Capital Medical University and senior researcher of Beijing Institute of life sciences, believed that although Zhang Feng had played an important role in the application and promotion of crissr gene editing technology in human cells But their achievements in this field are more “pioneering” and “original”. < / P > < p > in fact, although the patent ownership of cripsr gene editing technology has caused controversy in the industry, two female scientists, Jennifer dodner and Emmanuel shar Ponge, have always been regarded as the “most prestigious pioneers” in this field. If more and more scientists have shown the world more functions and great potential of the “gene scissors” crissr CAS, and demonstrated how it can “tailor” the genes of all organisms, including human beings, then Jennifer Donna and her colleagues are the people who discovered the “scissors” – they put the magic sharp gene “scissors” into the public In front of the world, is a “from nothing to have” discovery. < / P > < p > “genetic tools have enormous power, and they affect all of us. It has not only revolutionized basic science, but also brought innovative crops, making it possible to develop breakthrough new medical therapies. ” Commenting on the award, the chairman of the Nobel Committee on chemistry, Chris Gustafson, said. < / P > < p > in fact, since 1970, humans have tried to “cut” and “paste” recombinant gene editing techniques to rewrite cells. However, the methods used by researchers at that time were based on natural bacterial enzymes, which could not accurately target the specific gene sequences needed by researchers, resulting in deviations in the “tailoring” of genes, resulting in unpredictable results of the final rewritten genes. Compared with other previous technologies, CRISPR CAS gene editing technology not only has high accuracy, but also has low “access threshold”. This ease of use has won higher popularity for this technology, which makes CRISPR CAS gene editing technology rapidly popularized in major laboratories around the world. < / P > < p > since then, more and more scientists have tried to use CRISPR CAS gene editing technology to “repair all kinds of gene damage”, and its research scope has rapidly developed from basic cell biology and animal research to the treatment of broader human diseases such as cellular anemia and HIV. < / P > < p > in the agricultural field where this technology is most widely used, researchers use CRISPR CAS gene editing technology to improve the inherent deficiencies of corn, cotton and other crops, so that the innovative crops with “scissors” gene pruning become more insect resistant, drought tolerant and less susceptible to disease; in medicine, on the one hand, scientists and doctors try to use CRISPR CAS gene editing technology In addition, the emergence of CRISPR CAS gene editing technology also provides more initiative for human beings to fight against diseases that suddenly attack It can help human beings “cut out” the “most suspicious” gene fragments more quickly and accurately, and make it convenient for scientists to locate and efficiently amplify and detect “suspected objects”.
novel coronavirus, novel coronavirus, which raged around the world in 2020, Jennifer Daudna said in September this year that the three advantages of CRISPR-Cas gene editing technology are that it can provide more direct RNA detection, and can be rewritten more simply to cope with the mutation of virus and make it easier to manufacture batch of related detection equipment, which will hopefully provide more for the human to fight the new coronavirus. Strong support. < / P > < p > “if you want to ask me why I think the public should support more interest driven scientific research, the reason is that (interest driven) is the essence of science. After all, we can never predict where the future is going, “says Jennifer dodner. It is said that “gta5” will be launched on Google cloud game platform stadia